Wednesday, January 31, 2007

Supplications (Duas in Arabic) From The Holy Quran.


God teaches us in Quran the most favorable supplications to call him with:

(And when My servants ask thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them): I respond to the dua (prayer) of every suppliant when they calleth on Me - Quran 2:186):

1. Our Lord! Grant us good in this world and good in the life to come and keep us safe from the torment of the Fire (2:201)

2. Our Lord! Bestow on us endurance and make our foothold sure and give us help against those who reject faith. (2:250)

3. Our Lord! Take us not to task if we forget or fall into error. (2:286)

4. Our Lord! Lay not upon us such a burden as You did lay upon those before us. (2:286)

5. Our Lord! Impose not on us that which we have not the strength to bear, grant us forgiveness and have mercy on us. You are our Protector. Help us against those who deny the truth. (2:286)
6. Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate from the truth after You have guided us, and bestow upon us mercy from Your grace. Verily You are the Giver of bounties without measure. (3:8)

7. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and the lack of moderation in our doings, and make firm our steps and succour us against those who deny the truth. (3:147)

8. Our Lord! Whomsoever You shall commit to the Fire, truly You have brought [him] to disgrace, and never will wrongdoers find any helpers (3:192)

9. Our Lord! Behold we have heard a voice calling us unto faith: "Believe in your Lord" and we have believed. (3:193)

10. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and efface our bad deeds and take our souls in the company of the righteous. (3:193)

11. Our Lord! And grant us that which you have promised to us by Your messengers and save us from shame on the Day of Judgement. Verily You never fail to fulfill Your promise. (3:194)

12. Our Lord! We have sinned against ourselves, and unless You grant us forgiveness and bestow Your mercy upon us, we shall most certainly be lost! (7:23)

13. Our Lord! Place us not among the people who have been guilty of evildoing. (7:47)

14. Our Lord! Lay open the truth between us and our people, for You are the best of all to lay open the truth. (7:89)

15. Our Lord! Pour out on us patience and constancy, and make us die as those who have surrendered themselves unto You. (7:126)

16. Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the evildoing folk, and save as by Your mercy from people who deny the truth (10:85-86)

17. Our Lord! You truly know all that we may hide [in our hearts] as well as all that we bring into the open, for nothing whatever, be it on earth or in heaven, remains hidden from Allah (14:38)

18. Our Lord! Bestow on us mercy from Your presence and dispose of our affairs for us in the right way. (18:10)

19. Our Lord! Grant that our spouses and our offspring be a comfort to our eyes, and give us the grace to lead those who are conscious of You. (25:74)

20. Our Lord! You embrace all things within Your Grace and Knowledge, forgive those who repent and follow Your path, and ward off from them the punishment of Hell. (40:7)

21. Our Lord! Make them enter the Garden of Eden which You have promised to them, and to the righteous from among their fathers, their wives and their offspring, for verily You are alone the Almighty and the truly Wise. (40:8)

22. Our Lord! Relieve us of the torment, for we do really believe. (44:12)

23. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins as well as those of our brethren who proceeded us in faith and let not our hearts entertain any unworthy thoughts or feelings against [any of] those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness and Most Merciful (59:10)

24. Our Lord! In You we have placed our trust, and to You do we turn in repentance, for unto You is the end of all journeys. (60:4)

25. Our Lord! Perfect our light for us and forgive us our sins, for verily You have power over all things. (66:8)

Monday, January 29, 2007

Delegation of Priests Convert to Islam at Climax of Muslim-Christian Dialogue


[In 1980, between the 1st and 7th of December, a groundbreaking dialogue was held in Khartoum, Sudan, between Muslim scholars and Christian priests. Over several sessions this distinguished group of theologians discussed topics that go to the heart of the Islamic and Christian faiths, including Monotheism, Trinity, the Qur'an, and the Bible. At the climax of this dialogue, Father James Bakheet Sulayman, President of the Christian Mission and head of the Christian delegation, declares that he, along with the rest of the Christian priests, have decided to embrace Islam. What follows is an extract from a book[1] that chronicles this remarkable event. – Editor]Final SessionConcluding RemarksA Word from Father James Bakheet Sulayman, Representing the Christian Side[Father Sulayman will imminently announce his declaration of Islam]Respected members of the Organizatrion for the Revival of Islamic Activity in the Sudan; respected sir of the office of the Saudi Religions Attaché in Khartoum; respected and honored guests:According to what was decided at the beginning of the first session, we were to give an opportunity to the scholars, Jamiel Ghazi, Ahmad ‘Abdul-Wahhab and Ibrahim Khalil, to respond to the questions related to Islam and Christianity. We had forwarded these questions to Your Eminence, hoping to find explanations and clarifications which would remove pending doubts from within ourselves. This was in the interest of knowing the truth from falsehood. Thereafter, we would give our opinion concerning the substance of the answers to the questionsNo doubt, all of you are expecting that we enter into a free discussion with you right now so we can respond to your answers and detailed explanations concerning the two faiths of Islam and ChristianityInstead, we must say truthfully in front of Allah: we have no other response but to openly declare that Islam is our religion. We must adhere to all its values and standards because it is the truth. It is the light of the best people in this world and the Hereafter. Gentlemen, with this spiritual and objective beginning, we must announce that there are numerous responsibilities awaiting us, not just towards these brothers who have embraced Islam, but there are also many priests and men and women Christian leaders who need to know what we got out of this discourse between us.Undoubtedly, this is part of the our primary responsibility wherein we must cooperate. We must cooperate sincerely, not for any material benefit, but rather to let everyone know, whether Muslims or Christians, of the truths revealed by Allah, Most Glorified, Most Exalted, to the best of His creation, Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.Before I conclude, I would like to especially thank all those who participated with all of the various means at the disposal to make this discourse a success, enabling us to emerge with positive results. This will be there for all future generations, not only Sudan but for all peoples.Wa as-salamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatu Allahi wa barakatuh.Reference[1] Dialogue between Islam and Christianity: Discussion of the Religious Dogma Between Intellectuals from the Two Religions, pages 481-482. Published in 1999 by the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America (IIASA). ISBN 1-56923-036-6

My thinking of Al Mahdi Al Muntazer

By: Maged Taman

1- He has to solve first and for good the Arab-Israeli conflict. This will get our wasted effort and money to the development of the Muslims and Arab countries.

2- He has to win the hearts and minds of the west Christians, Jews and Muslims. This will allow him to get ideas and plans to better world to all of us.

3- He has to negotiate or I say better demonstrate to the Jihadists that there is better world to the Muslims. As he delivers they would disntigrate or quite down.

4- The Arab leaders or tyrants whatever name they like has to negotiate with moderates to quit the scene in peace and let us have new democracies.

5- He is very likely will be clear to the major powers in the world what he is doing. They have the right we are living in one planet.

6- I do not know what is job or title the Mahdi will have. I do not think he really would care about that. I think his man power is to get people gather around him to work for the good of the world.

7- He will likely work through the public and not in closed doors with politicians. People are waiting for one to talk directly to the public to feel his sincerity and to comit to his visions which ultimately reflects their aspirations.

8- He will work through conferences and dialogs. He will make his decisions through consensus.

Sunday, January 28, 2007

Quran: Witness the Miracle


By Khalid Baig

Night after night in Ramadan, the believers witness a unique spectacle at mosques around the world. They stand in special Taraveeh prayers in which the prayer leader will recite the entire Quran from memory. Those who have accomplished this extraordinary feat of memorizing all of the 6246 verses are not a handful of devotees but there are hundreds of thousands of them. Most, just like most Muslims in the world today, do not speak Arabic. Yet they have painstakingly learnt to pronounce each and every word of the Quran correctly. The phenomenon is not a result of some religious resurgence that would pass. From the very first day that the Quran was revealed, it was memorized. And the number of those who have memorized it has been increasing ever since. Memorization of Quran has been going on all through the centuries, all over the globe wherever Muslims are.
There are other religions that claim to possess the Word of God. There are none that can show a book that has commanded anything remotely comparable to this level of devotion. Quran is the most read and the only completely memorized book in the whole world. It is also the most studied book in the world. It has stimulated development of entire disciplines of knowledge dealing with its reading, writing, and interpretation.
Miraculous as it is, this is not the only unique aspect of the Quran.
Quran was the first book in the Arabic language. Yet fourteen centuries later, its language is as alive as it was when it was revealed. And there is no other example when the very first book in a language became any masterpiece let alone the eternal masterpiece that Quran is.
This Book is meant to command and guide humanity until the end of time. That the passage of fourteen centuries has not made the slightest dent in its language or literary beauty is only one evidence of that unique role; its contents have also been unassailable by the passage of time. It makes statements of scientific facts that science would discover centuries later but none that science could ever refute. It tells about ancient history, like the civilization of the 'Aad people in the Empty Quarter of the Arabian desert that no other historical sources, then or since, contain any information about. Yet, its veracity has only recently been verified by scientific discoveries. Above all, it provides a system of beliefs and a code of conduct for life which is as relevant, illuminating, and true today as it was fourteen centuries earlier and during all the centuries in between.
The believers know that this Book had to be above space and time because this is the Word of the Creator of space and time. And He has promised that it will always be above space and time. But those who are looking from the outside and are just curious may consider these additional facts:
Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, did not go to any school, study from any teacher, or even learn how to read and write. He even had no interest in poetry, which was one of the most prized disciplines of his time. Yet suddenly at age forty, he began to recite this marvelous revelation.
The style of Quran is very distinct from the words of the Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, himself, which also have been preserved in Hadith collections. His own sayings are embodiments of eloquence, but they have a different style. Moreover, they clearly are the words of a human being. Although never deviating from the truth, they do show human emotions and the effects of the circumstances in which they were said. Quran, on the other hand, never shows the slightest trace of these effects. It always speaks from above.
It was revealed over a twenty-three year period and covers a very wide range of subjects yet it shows neither a gradual development of style nor any self- contradictions in the voluminous text.
The twenty-three years of Prophetic life was not a period spent in isolation. He did not retire to a cave to produce this miraculous work. The Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, did spend long periods of time in quiet meditation in Cave Hira before becoming a Prophet. But after Prophethood was conferred upon him, his life was one of constant struggle with the pagans, and later the Jews, of Arabia who spared no effort to stop and persecute him. It was during this period of persecution, wars, campaigns, and solving problems associated with the bringing about of greatest civilizational revolution of all times --- an extremely busy and challenging period --- that Quranic Revelation was also received and compiled.
The Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, himself was most deeply moved by the Book. He used to stand for hours in solitary midnight prayers reciting from the Book until his feet used to get swollen. How preposterous that one should attempt to attribute the Book to him. Has there ever been another example of somebody getting so moved by his own words?
This is not meant to be an exhaustive list of all the evidence that proves Quran to be the Word of God. Scholars have written books expounding the miracle of miracles that Quran is. But even this small sampler may propel an inquiring mind to go and read the Book himself.
To read this Book with an open mind is to believe in it. Those who sincerely seek guidance will find their questions answered, their confusions removed, their problems solved in its pages. From the beginning until the end, every word in the Quran tells the reader that it is the Word of Allah. And those who ignore it do so at their own peril.
"And if you are in doubt as to what We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (if there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true. But if you cannot - and of a surety you cannot - then fear the Fire whose fuel is men and stones which is prepared for those who reject Faith." [Al-Baqarah 2:23-24]

Why Jesus is not the Servant in Isaiah 53.

The translation of Isaiah 53 is quite different in many versions of Jewish and Christians Books. Though no one of us is as great as Jesus I can argue against that Isaiah 53 was talking about Jesus for the following reasons:
1- He was exalted since his birth. The servant in Isaiah 53 looks like unknown, unappreciated and had no followers until people came to know him. He is like he did not know what in hell is going on until God filled him with greif and pushed him out to find he is dealing with God's program.
2- Jesus did open his mouth and scolded the wicked. This servant until he came to us was submissive and did not open his mouth.
3- Jesus did not have any disease he was actually treating diseases.
4- Jesus did not have offsprings.
5- He was not successful in his first coming but he will be in the second coming however it is more of stretch to make the verses to include the two comings.
6- Jesus had a great appearance. The verses are talking about no appearance until he came out.
7- Jesus according to Islam was not tried but God raised him before the wicked trial.

I am not a theologian but I do not believe the Servant is Jesus.

Why Would The Quran Mention All OF These Prophets?

I can understand why atheists do not believe in Quran. They think all the ideas of religions are hoax. In other places in my blog I debated them. The thing I could not understand why still many Christians and Jews do not believe in the Quran. There is no compulsion in religion. However why Muhammad (PBUH) would mention all these prophets of the old and new testaments if Quran was not from God. Why he would mention himself only 4 times. Who in human history brought a book like the Quran and mentioned all of these prophets like did the Bible. If I would say today I am a prophet people will put me under the microscope, they will investigate my family and people who knew me to see if I am a liar or crazy. They will likely dig in my life to find things against me. People will look to me with great suspicion unless I can dramatically convince them. The responsibility lies in people in the top of the religions to do their homework since they are the one who will answer to God in the day of judgement. Quran 3:70 O followers of earlier revelation! Why do you deny the truth of God's messages to which you yourselves bear witness?

Table: includes: Number, Name of the messenger and Number of occurrence in the Quran:
1 Moses 136
2 Abraham 69
3 Noah 43
4 Lot 27
5 Joseph 27
6 Adam 25
7 Jesus 25
8 Aaron 20
9 Isaac 17
10 Solomon 17
11 Jacob 16
12 David 16
13 Ismail 12
14 Shuaib 11
15 Saaleh 9
16 Hood 7
17 Zachariah 7
18 John 5
19 Muhammad 4
20 Job 4
21 Jonah 4
22 Elias 3
23 Idris 2
24 Zalkifl 2
25 Elisha 2
26 Luqmaan 2
27 Ezra 1

Table is copied from

Ashura: A Day of Unity for Shi'is and Sunnis.

By Mohammed Khako
Al-Jazeerah, January 28, 2007

The words Sunni and Shi'i (or the derogatory form, Shiite) appear regularly in news, but few people know what they really mean. Understanding Sunni and Shi'i (sometimes written as Shia) beliefs is important in understanding the conflict in Iraq (resulting from the US occupation of Iraq). The centuries old Shi'i-Sunni differences are the major obstacle to Muslim Unity. There are scholars on both sides – Sunni and Shi'i, like Imam Khomeini and Shaikh Shaltut of Al-Azhar who have done their best to minimize differences and bring unity, but they were not successful due to the misinformation prevailing in the common masses of Sunnis about the Shi'a (school of thought). While a great deal of money and efforts is being spent to fan the fire of hatred between Shi'is and Sunnis in the Middle East with obvious political and economical fruits for power to be. Special interest groups have always fanned these differences for their benefit.
This is what Imam Khomeini said some twenty years ago
“ The filthy hands which aggravates the differences between Shi'i and Sunni Muslims belong to neither to the Shi'is nor the Sunnis. They are the hands of colonialists, which plan to take Islamic countries out of our hands. The colonial powers which want to plunder our wealth through various schemes and conspiracies are the ones who hatch plots for creating division under the pretext of Shi'a or Sunna. Muslims worldwide should not fall in to trap set by those who seek division and mutual hatred. Anyone who is responsible for instigating sectarian division and violence is either an enemy of Islam, or doing the work of the enemies of Islam”
The majority of Shi'i Muslims share all the core belief of Sunni Islam. Shia and Sunna (Islamic schools of thought) have many things in common. They both believe in One God (Allah), follow the same Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of God be upon him), as the last Prophet, offer five daily prayers, perform the fast in the month of Ramadan, go to Mecca for pilgrimage (Hajj), recite the same Qur'an (Holy scriptures) and give alms – Charity (Zakat). There is no theological or spiritual dispute between the Shia and Sunna schools. Rather, the differences are really ethnic and political. While in the matter of Islamic jurisprudence, difference are minor. Sunnis and Shi’is are considered by most to be brethren in faith. In fact, most Muslims do not distinguish themselves by claiming relationship to any particular group, but prefer to call themselves simply “Muslims”.
The factor that most distinguishes Shi'is from Sunnis is the belief in a special representative of God, after the end of Prophethood, called an Imam. The Shi'i Muslims believe that following the Prophet Muhammad’s death; leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law Imam Ali. The Imam has both a spiritual role of guidance as well as a politico-social role of rule over Muslims in order to enforce Islamic law. The Shi'is hold that there are twelve Imams, with Ali being the first, Al-Hussain the third. The twelfth and final one, Imam Mahdi (after whom Muqtada al-Sadr named his military wing the “Mahdi Army”) is in a supernatural state of occultation awaiting his return to establish a just order on earth. During his period of occultation, per his instructions, the Ayatollahs are his representatives and the obedience due unto him in both a religious and political sense devolves unto them. The difference between Ayatollah Sistani and Ayatollah Khomeini —both Iranians educated in Najaf, Iraq—is of degree and not of kind.
To grasp the mind-set of any Ayatollah, it is enough to quote Imam Al-Hussain. “The conduct of affairs and the laws should be in the hands of the learned and spiritual leaders of God who are the trustees of what He has made prohibited and lawful. The reign of affairs must be in their hands…” Ayatollah Sistani and others in the Najaf seminary belong to the older quietist school, while some Ayatollahs from Islamic seminary in Qom, Iran, believe in clerical activism and come from the school of thought that religion and politics are inseparable.
The Shi'i are more hierarchical, with ayatollahs (clerics) have more power. The Sunnis are more self-governing. Initially the difference between Sunnis and Shi'is was merely a difference concerning who should lead the Muslim community (Ummah) after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in early 7th century. The Sunni-Shi'i divide is similar to Protestant-Catholic split in Christianity. Shi'is are far more passionate and attached to the love of the Prophet Muhammad and his family (Ahlul-Bayt /Imams). Shism is more Catholic-like just as Catholics recognized Saints, Shi'is believe in Imam (saint) as an intermediary between man and God. Shi'i pilgrims who go to the shrine of Imam Ali in Najaf and Imam Al-Hussain in Kerbala, Iraq could be like Catholic pilgrims who go to the shrine of Fatima in Portugal or to the Vatican.
Sunnis are more Protestant-like. The Sunni cleric is more like a Protestant pastor, whereas a Shi'i Ayatollah is more like a bishop or a cardinal, except that Shism has no pope (Well, a lot of Shi'is looked at Imam Khomeini in the past and Khameini now the same way Catholics look at the Pope - Al-Jazeerah Editor). Just like Protestant and Catholicism, both follow the same scriptures, both follow the same story of Jesus, but have a different ethos of Christianity. The same is true for Shi'is and Sunnis.
If there are no genuine differences among Shi'is and Sunnis, then why all this bloodshed in Iraq? Looking at histories of religion, we know there were disputes over interpretations and versions of narration (Hadith). These disputes among communities over time can lead to conflict. The disputes have become politicized, for instance, many years of war in Northern Ireland and in Europe were due to territory disputes or independence from Vatican or British domination. So the Sunni-Shi'i issue has the same flow. In Iraq today, why are the Shi'is and Sunnis so antagonistic? It is because, much like Northern Ireland, the theological boundary marks the boundaries of different communities and their identities.
In Washington, newspaper editorials talk about civil war, Shi'i militias, and Sunni insurgents (resistance fighters) in Iraq. There is too much at stake to get swept up by minor differences and divide the Muslim community along Shi'i and Sunni lines. We are all Muslims, and that is the most important thing to remember. Just as God delivered Moses and his people free on the day of Ashura from bondage, death and despair, I pray God delivers the greater Middle East from the bondage of hatred, death, and war. The best way to commemorate the supreme sacrifice of the martyrs of Karbala on Ashura on Jan 28th is to shun sectarian and other prejudice and follow the principle of peaceful coexistence, tolerance and mutual respect to create unity and cohesion in the community. The martyrdom and the supreme sacrifice of Imam Al-Hussain on the plains of Karbala should give Muslims the lesson of tolerance, moderation, forgiveness, harmony and tranquility between followers of all school of thought.

Saturday, January 27, 2007

The Qur’an: A Book You Can Believe In.


In the name of God, the Most Compassionate, Most Merciful
The Qur’an: unique among Scriptures The Qur’an is the most often-read book in the world. Revealed by God to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the 7th century, and revered by Muslims as being God’s final Scripture and Testament, its words have been lovingly recited, memorised, and implemented by Muslims of every nationality ever since. The faithful are inspired, consoled often moved to tears by its eloquence and poetic imagery, especially when recited aloud. And yet, the Qur’an is unique in being the only Scripture that is free of scientific inaccuracies, whose historical authenticity can be verified, and whose text has been so carefully preserved that just one authorised version (in Arabic) exists. Approximately the length of the New Testament, the Qur’an is also the only holy book that can be memorised in its entirety by people of all ages and intellectual abilities – including non-Arabic speakers – which Muslims consider to be one of its miracles. We invite you to take a few minutes to learn something about a book that is the foundation of the world-view and culture of almost one-fourth of the people on this planet.
A scientific Scripture for a scientific age One of the most remarkable things about the Qur’an is that it contains many verses which accurately describe natural phenomenon in various fields such as embryology, meteorology, astronomy, geology and oceanography. Scientists have found its descriptions to be inexplicably valid for a book dating from the 6th century; in fact, many of the processes and functions mentioned in the Qur’an have been discovered only recently. This fact alone has been the cause of a number of distinguished scientists embracing Islam. It also explains why the conflicts that emerged in Europe during the Middle Ages between faith and reason, religion and science, never arose in Islam; the Qur’an repeatedly encourages people to reflect and use their intelligence, and most Muslim scientists and inventors have also been pious believers.
Some of the Qur’an’s ‘scientific’ verses include an accurate description of embryonic development during the first forty days of life; an explanation that the roots of mountains are like pegs which help to anchor and stabilise the earth’s crust; that a natural barrier exists wherever two seas meet (each maintains its own salinity, temperature and density); that waves occur in layers in the depths of the ocean; that the heavens and earth were first joined together before being split apart; and that the heavens emerged from ‘smoke’, i.e. the gases and dust that characterise nebulas as stars are forming.
The Qur’an was never meant to be a ‘science textbook’; whether highlighting the wonders of nature or the lessons of history, its verses direct us to reflect on the glory of God. However, no other ancient book or Scripture is accurate in this way. Muslims believe that this is one of the Qur’an’s proofs; one of the things that makes it a credible, ‘living revelation’ for a modern age, and allows it to reveal itself afresh with passing time.
The Qur’an and the development of knowledge The word ‘qur’an’ means ‘recitation’, and the first verse of the Qur’an to be revealed by the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad was a command to ‘Read (or recite)! In the name of your Lord…’ This directive to a man who, like most people of the time, could neither read nor write, marked the beginning of a new age in human communication, learning, and development. Whereas earlier Scriptures had been written and passed down by elite circles of priests and scribes – usually long after the death of the religion’s founder – the preservation of the Qur’an was a community effort from the beginning, and it was completed during the Prophet Muhammad’s own lifetime. The Prophet’s early followers eagerly memorised and recorded each new revelation as it was revealed; by the time he passed away, thousands had memorised the entire Qur’an by heart. Within two years after the Prophet’s death, the first caliph Abu Bakr requested the Prophet’s secretary Zayd to collect all existing copies and fragments of the Qur’an in one place, in order to compile a standard edition. This manuscript became the basis for the authorised editions that were distributed to each Muslim province during the rule of ‘Uthman, third caliph; remarkably, a few of those early manuscripts have been preserved and can still be viewed in museums today.
Following the example of the beloved Prophet, who encouraged all Muslims, male and female, to seek beneficial knowledge, mosques became centres of learning as well as prayer. The concept of universal, free basic education originated in Islam; children learned to read, write, memorise the Qur’an and do basic maths at village mosque schools; bright students were sent to cities to pursue higher education. The world’s first universities, hospitals, and postal services were established by Muslims. Early caliphs set up institutions like the ‘House of Wisdom’ in Baghdad, where scholars were paid to translate scientific, literary and religious works from every known language into Arabic. It was this open-mindedness that inspired Jews and Christians under Muslim rule in Spain to translate classical Roman and Greek texts from Arabic into European languages, sparking the European Renaissance.
A book with a message and a purpose Like all books, the Qur’an is a means to convey a message – in this case, a very special message from the Creator to all humanity. The Qur’an is an ‘owner’s manual for the human being’; whoever wonders about the purpose of life and their own existence will find it to be a guide par excellence. Building on prior revelations, this Final Testament confirms the age-old truths of previous Scriptures, but clarifies points of faith where error or confusion have crept into them over the centuries. Those who have read the Bible will find much that is familiar: descriptions of God’s handiwork; stories of the Prophets, Satan, angels and the Day of Judgement; moral and ethical guidelines; and spiritual practices like prayer and fasting. Yet the Qur’an is not just a re-hashing of old stories; its perspective is unique and fresh, and its worldview eminently suited to people of today.
To give one example, according to the Qur’an, God held Adam and Eve jointly responsible for tasting the forbidden fruit; no special curse was laid on Eve for leading Adam astray, and no ‘original sin’ came into being, to be inherited for all time by innocent children. Adam and Eve simply sought His forgiveness and were forgiven, and Adam (peace be upon him) is respected in Islam as the first Prophet.
There are other important distinctions between the Qur’an and the Bible; the Qur’an asserts that much of the original books of the Bible and other Scriptures have been lost or corrupted over time (whether through warfare, political intrigue, religious schisms or other reasons). One only has to consider the number of different versions of the Bible in use today, the lack of ‘first’ originals, and the late discovery of long-lost Scriptures like the Dead Sea Scrolls to realise that this viewpoint is an objective one. The Qur’an rejects the concept of salvation or special privilege based on ethnicity; God does not discriminate on the basis of race or colour. It also denies the need for the sacrifice of innocent life – animal or human – in order for people to attain salvation. It states that Jesus (peace be upon him) was not crucified as claimed, but that God saved him from his enemies, as one would expect of God’s honoured and beloved Messenger; his life was meant to be an inspiring example. Spiritual salvation is to be achieved solely through humble repentance, coupled by an attempt to make amends for one’s sins, and a sincere intention not to repeat one’s mistakes in the future. There is no official priesthood in Islam, and the Imam is no more than a knowledgeable prayer-leader and brother in faith; one’s sins need only be confessed directly to the Creator.
The Qur’an’s main message is to call people to turn to the Source of all being and the Giver of life, and to serve Him with a pure heart, free of idolatry or superstition. In Islam, ‘One God’ means just that: there is no concept of trinity, or anything else to complicate one’s understanding. Like the single nucleus of a cell or an atom, He Alone is the ‘control centre’ behind it all; anything else would lead to chaos and confusion. God is Unique and without partner; He was not born and did not give birth; He is All-Compassionate and Merciful, Almighty and Just, and the only One we need turn to for guidance and help. Anything that we allow to come between ourselves and our Creator – even our own egos – is an idol. Wealth, fame, physical attraction and all the pleasures of this world will someday fade, and we will not be able to take them with us when we die. Only our faith and good deeds will remain, to light our graves and be a beacon for us on the Day of Judgement.
Although no translation of the Qur’an can faithfully capture its Arabic meaning (and all Muslims are encouraged to learn Arabic), the following excerpt illustrates these points beautifully:
‘Recite to them the story of Abraham, When he asked his father and his people, ‘What do you worship?’ ‘We worship idols,’ they replied, ‘and we are ever devoted to them.’ He said, ‘Do they hear you when you cry? Or do they benefit or harm you in any way?’ They said, ‘No, but this is what we found our forefathers doing.’ He said, ‘Do you see, then, what you and your forefathers have been worshipping? Truly, they are all my enemies, except the Lord of the Worlds, Who created me, and Who guides me, And Who feeds me and gives me to drink, And when I am ill, He heals me, And Who will cause me to die, and give me life again; And Who, I ardently hope, will forgive me my sins on the Day of Judgement. O Lord, grant me wisdom, and unite me with the righteous, And grant that I may be remembered well in future generations, And make me one of the inheritors of the Garden of Delight; And forgive my father, for he is one of those who is lost; And do not disgrace me on the Day when all will be resurrected, The Day that wealth and children will not avail anyone, Except one who brings to God a clean heart.’ (The Qur’an, Chapter of ‘The Poets’, 26:69–89)
------------------------------------------- Interested in learning more? For reliable information on the Qur’an, Islam and Muslims, contact: WAMY EUROPE: 46 Goodge Street, London W1T 4LU, UK E-mail:, Tel: +44 (0) 20 7636 7010, Fax: +44 (0) 20 7636 7080 More Literature about Islam in other Languages is available in our website:

Friday, January 26, 2007

Anexiety and Depression: How Does Islam Deal with them?

We all to a certain degree have some anxiety and depression in our lives. A lot of times they are not severe enough to make us want to consult a psychiatrist. We have defensive mechanisms to combat that. The more mature and strong our personalities are the more likely we would be able to deal with them effectively. Islam has a lot of defense mechanisms:

1- Faith in God makes you feel that a lot of things are destined to happen anyway, so you just do what you think is right. Life is like a movie and we are actors. We act for the first time with our complete control of the scenario as actors to find out this movie had exactly the same scenario that known by God thousands of years ago. We are still the actors and have the will to change life and God still sees the future. How he does that it is beyond our science and knowledge but one of the essentials of our religious believes.

2- Faith in the hereafter and the eternal life make these few years in earth like nothing. If you compare anything to the infinity it equals zero. It makes you more willing to accept losses of loved ones, friends and money. I fact any loss you can imagine is predetermined. It is difficult not to feel sad after a loss but knowing there is another and better life makes things less important than it seems. We will be gathered in Paradise, hopefully with our loved ones, if we all are righteous and have faith in God.

3- Anxiety is the inner feeling of fear from what may happen, known or unknown. Believing in God and that is every thing is determined make you feel in ease and put your faith in God. The worst thing could happen is that we will die. We will be in much better place than the one we have now.

4- Islam teaches you how to deal with people with respect, decency, appreciation and fairness. That makes you less prone to conflicts and struggles with people. It makes you live in peace with them.

5- Praying and reading the Quran per Se give you state of inner peace and serenity.

6- Islam teaches you also how to forgive people so you save your spirit free and not agile. As well you save your body systems the effects of anger. There is a saying to the prophet (PBUH): the best of the people are most to accept their apology or find the apology to them.

7- Praying is the time you take off 5 times a day to recharge your spirit and wash away the things that led to your anger, anxiety and depression.

8- Praying is a relaxation to both the mind and body. It is like doing the yoga but you connect with a great being who created you and control the world and all the people that you may have grievances against them.

9- Muslims as the prophet described are like one body if one organ is sick the other organs feel sick and suffering. Thus Muslims are looking after one another to be sure no one is down, sad, depressed, angry or anxious. They are ought to help to absorb his pain and help him to cope with problems.

10- Islam addresses all injustices either real or perceptive so people leave in peace and do not feel they are oppressed, discriminated against or neglected.

11- The good Muslims and Imams have important roles like the priests and sisters in Christianity. They check in the people to be sure they are doing well in their daily life.

12- Good government is like a good doctor who is interested in the will being of his patient even beyond his health. The government can affect our well being by securing our health care and retirement. Two of the great issues of people 's anxiety.

13- Many destructive thoughts are from Satan: he wants you to suffer and make everything in your mind bigger than it is. He prepares you to get angry against people for little things and make you suspicious of people. Islam warns you always to be alert to the destructive thoughts that Satan put in our brain.

14- Islam asks you to avoid suspecting bad things in people for two things it may not be true and it also makes people evil- oriented and ready to get against one another.

15- Repentance and forgiveness are two great cleansers of your heart. The first clean your heart from sins and bad thoughts when you ask God to accept your repentance. Forgiveness similarly cleans your heart from the grouches you may have against other people. Because God is Just forgiveness comes after you were able to forgive and not when you are weak and helpless. It is not forgiveness in second case it is cowardliness. God is just and compassionate.

Thursday, January 25, 2007

The White Revolution Of Egypt 1952.

By: Maged Taman

One of the most admired revolutions in the world was that of Nasser and the Free officers of 1952. They play it right they had secret plans all along and in one day they put units of armies in the right places to control the government and the King of Egypt. They let him out of the country peacefully and took over the country. I do not recall any one died during this revolution. The Egyptians were happy and the leaders of the revolution had good plans to their country. However, they screwed it up second to greed of power and oppression to their people. Nasser has Arabic ambitions and with personal ambitions he lost Egypt in the process. Sadat came after him and he was right not on separating Egypt from the Arab world but he knew the reality on the ground. Arab leaders were selling the anti-Israel rhetoric to divert the attention away from their internal affairs while Egyptians were paying their blood and money for endless wars. He smartly shocked Israel by his visit to them and he got a good deal from them. If the Arabs at that time to have negotiated with Israel we would save the agony and money spent all these years on defense. Arab leaders attacked Sadat and the reality is they would not care about Palestinians or even their people. Sadat did not also win his people since he enjoyed being a dictator and left us with a tyrant. We need now new chapter in the Arab and Muslim world to create true democratic, peaceful and prosperous countries. Our faith as Muslims should give us the inspiration of how to be better people. What the west needs from us is stability, oil and safety of Israel which we will give it to them. Guess also what, we are willing to have white revolutions it the tyrants and their oppressor regimes quit willingly. There is no single man can change the world regardless of how much paranoia he has. He may give people ideas, inspiration and hope. They may feel he is guided from God which make their hopes not far form achievement. However, it is the collective will of the people and belief in their faith and destiny that will change the world. The religious Muslim leaders as well the Christian leaders living among them has to take their responsibility and lead the people to their freedom and prosperity.
The west if does not help, at least I am hoping, does not obstruct our march to freedom.

Wednesday, January 24, 2007

The Ideal Muslim


By: Dr. Muhammad ‘Ali Al-Hashimi*

The Muslim as Islâm meant him to be, is a unique and remarkable person in his attitude and conduct and in his relationships and dealings with others at all levels. Throughout his long history, man has never been given the components of a virtuous and integrated personality such as Islâm has bestowed upon the Muslim through the divine guidance contained in the Qur’ân and Sunnah.
Islâm does not concentrate on filling men’s minds with philosophical ideas, or on excessive dream-like spirituality, or on physical training and perfection, or on self-serving materialistic philosophies such as exist nowadays in both East and West. Islâm drew up a balanced, integrated program for man’s development, taking into account his physical, intellectual and spiritual needs, based on the sound principle that man is formed of body, mind and soul.
The personality of the Muslim is perfectly integrated and balanced, and no aspect of it is overtaken by others, as happens in other societies where man is brought up under imperfect manmade systems which all too often are governed by selfish desires, reprehensible innovations or deviant ideas. The Muslim as has been explained in this study, is obedient to Allâh, follows His guidance, seeks His protection, accepts His decrees and always seeks to please Him.
The Muslim personality is balanced. He pays due attention to his body’s needs and his outward appearance, without letting it distract him from taking care of the inner characteristics, as befits man whom Allâh has honored, made His angels prostrate to him, and subjugated for his benefit all that is in heaven and earth. Rather, the Muslim is also concerned with that which will form sound intellectual development and ways of thinking, so that he will understand the nature and essence of things. He does not forget that man is not only composed of a body and a mind, but that he also possesses a soul and a spirit, and feels a longing for higher things that makes him rise above this materialistic life and scale the heights of goodness, virtue and light. Therefore he pays as much attention to his spiritual development as to his physical and intellectual development, in a precisely balanced fashion, which does not concentrate on one aspect to the detriment of others.
With his parents, he is an example of sincere filial piety, good treatment, infinite compassion, utter politeness and deep gratitude.
With his wife, he is the example of good and kind treatment, intelligent handling, deep understanding of the nature and psychology of women, and proper fulfillment of his responsibilities and duties.
With his children, he is a parent who understands his great responsibility towards them, which is, as well as flooding them with love and compassion, to pay attention to anything that may influence their Islâmic development.
With his relatives, he maintains the ties of kinship and knows his duties toward them. He understands the high status given to relatives in Islâm, which makes him keep in touch with them no matter what the circumstances.
With his neighbor, the true Muslim is an example of good treatment and consideration of others’ feelings and sensitivities. He puts up with mistreatment and turns a blind eye to his neighbor’s faults while taking care not to commit any such errors himself. He always adopts the Islâmic attitude whereby treating neighbors well was made a basic principle of Islâm, so much so that the Prophet thought that Jibrail would make his neighbor his heir. Therefore he never does anything bad to his neighbor, nor does he fail in his duty towards him; rather, he does not spare any effort to do favors for his neighbor, without expecting any favors, reward or thanks in return.
His relationship with his brothers and friends is the best and purest of relationships, for it is based on love for the sake of Allâh and this pure, sincere, brotherly love derives its purity from the guidance of the Qur’ân and Sunnah. Hence it became a unique network in the history of human relations.
From these strong bonds and deep love emerged a group of the best attitudes and characteristics, which make the true Muslim a wonderful example of humanity, in whom are embodied the values and morals of Islâm. He is loving, not cold, towards his brothers and friends; he is loyal and does not betray them; he is sincere and does not cheat them; he is gentle and never harsh; he is tolerant and forgiving, and does not bear a grudge or stab in the back; he is generous and prefers others to himself, and he prays for them in their absence.
In his social relationships with all people, he is well mannered, civil and noble, characterized by the attitudes that Islâm encourages. These are not the matter of superficial politeness, which conceals ulterior intentions, aims and goals. Rather it is the ongoing good behavior which is taught in the Qur’ân and Sunnah, and which Islâm has made a religious duty for which man will be brought to account.
The Muslim is truthful and sincere with all people. He does not cheat, deceive or betray. He does not envy others. He fulfils his promises. He has the attitude of shyness (modesty). He is tolerant and forgiving. He is cheerful. He is not pushy. He is patient. He avoids slandering or uttering obscenities. He does not unjustly accuse others of ‘fisq’ or ‘kufr’. He is shy and modest. He does not interfere in that which does not concern him. He refrains from gossiping, spreading slander and stirring up trouble. He avoids false speech and suspicion. When he is entrusted with a secret, he keeps it and does not disclose it. He is modest and never arrogant. He does not make fun of anyone. He respects his elders and those who are distinguished.
He mixes with the best of people. He is keen to do good to people and protect them from harm. He strives to reconcile between the Muslims. He calls others to the way of his ‘Rabb’ with wisdom and beautiful preaching. He visits the sick and attends funerals. He returns favors and is grateful for them. He mixes with people and bears their mistreatment with patience. He tries to make people happy as much as he can. He guides people to do good. He always likes to make things easy and not to make them hard.
He is fair in his judgements. He does not oppress others or play favorites. He is not a hypocrite or a sycophant or a show-off. He does not boast about his deeds and achievements. He is straightforward and is never devious or twisted, no matter what the circumstances. He loves noble things and hates foolishness. He does not exaggerate in his speech or puff up his cheek with pride. He is generous and does not remind others of his gifts or favors. He is hospitable and does not complain when a guest comes to him. He prefers others to himself as much as possible. He relieves the burden of the debtor. He is proud and does not think of begging. He knows that the upper hand is better than the lower. He gets along with people and they feel comfortable with him. He measures all of his habits and customs against Islâmic standards. He follows Islâmic etiquette in eating, drinking, giving ‘salam’, visiting people, entering their homes and sitting with them, and in other social activities. This is the clear, beautiful picture of the Muslim whose personality has been formed by Islâm and whose heart, mind and soul are filled with its divine light.
For man to reach this sublime level of noble virtues and morals and to translate them into a living reality on earth is the greatest achievement for which systems, laws, philosophies and ideologies may strive. It surpasses all other scientific and materialistic achievements which are known in our world today, and which dazzle us with their lights and colors. Man is the noblest and most precious of creatures, and all of the past efforts to establish human cultures have been aimed solely at achieving his happiness and elevating and honoring him. The way to honor him is by enhancing his humanity. The culture that concerns itself only with man’s lower desires, without developing and purifying his human nature and awakening his potential for good, is a culture that is sorely lacking. It has failed to fulfill the most important condition of human culture and has neglected the very humanity of man, which is his most valuable hidden asset.
All of the achievements and inventions of human civilization, such as cannons, missiles, satellites, transistors, television, video, etc., cannot replace the human aspect of man and indeed are worthless if they are not used to enhance his humanity, purify him and make him truly happy:
"By the Soul, and the proportion and order given to it. And its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right. Truly he succeeds that purifies it. And he fails that corrupts it!" (Qur’ân 91:7-10)
The development of a society is not measured solely in terms of its scientific achievements and material inventions. These are a factor, but there is another, more important, standard by which a society is also measured. That is the prevalence of human values such as love, empathy, altruism, sacrifice, uprightness and purity of thought, behavior and dealings with others.
If individuals are the basis of a society, and the pillars upon which every social renaissance is built, then rightly-guided societies pay attention to human development and enhance the positive, constructive aspects while seeking to eliminate evil, destructive motives, so that the individual will become a model citizen. It is from groups of such model citizens that clean, civil, strong, healthy, righteous societies are formed.
The Islâmic society is one which is integrated and of superior quality, and the Muslim in such a society is of the highest class because of the teachings of his religion which have instilled in him the highest and noblest human attitudes, and encouraged him to adhere to them in the field of social relationships.
The backwardness, division, hatred and cutting off of ties that we see occurring at all levels — international, regional and individual — among the Muslims are clear evidence of how Muslims are ignoring and neglecting the strong bonds of faith and brotherhood enjoined by Allâh. Hence the misguided ideologies of jâhiliyyah arose in the Muslim lands, and we have been overwhelmed by imported foreign principles that have brought poison and disease, and have made us like debris floating on the floodwaters. This would not have happened to the Muslims if their genuine Islâmic identity and the purity of their intellectual and spiritual sources had been preserved.
The attack against the Muslim world was conducted on two fronts. One was an assault directed against the Islâmic identity and aimed at distorting the Islâmic personality. The other was aimed at polluting the intellectual and spiritual sources, and diverting Muslims towards other, alien, sources. They managed in many Muslim lands to distort the Muslim identity and made the Muslims follow them like sheep in their intellectual matters and the way they behaved and felt. They deprived the Muslims of the values and morals of their religion, and took away the divine impetus which had brought them onto the stage of world history in such a remarkable fashion.
Nothing can restore the health and authenticity of the Muslim identity except a sincere return to the eternal way of Allâh, and a deep understanding of the mission with which the Muslim has been entrusted. This will enable the Muslims to fulfill their duty of conveying this message to mankind, after they have adopted it for themselves as an ideology and way of life.
When our misguided Ummah, which is lost in the mire of jâhiliyyah, subordination and tribalism, finally returns to the cool shade of Allâh, it will once again be the free, strong, integrated, supportive, united Ummah that will never be defeated. Then it will be the Ummah of faith, and Allâh has promised in the Qur’ân to support the Ummah of faith: "...and it was due from Us to aid those who believed." (Qur’an 30:47)

*Excerpt from the Conclusion of the Book “The Ideal Muslim: The True Islâmic Personality of the Muslim as Defined in the Qur’ân and Sunnah” Translated by Nasiruddin Al-Khattab Revised by Ibrahim M. Kunna and Abu Aya Sulaiman Abdus-Sabur Copyright & published by the International Islâmic Publishing House (IIPH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 1999.

Transforming the Self (Nafs in Arabic).


By Sheikh Ragip Robert Frager

The goal of all mysticism is to cleanse the heart, to educate, or transform, the self, and to find God. The lowest level of the self is dominated by pride, egotism, and totally self-centered greed and lust. This level is the part within each person that leads away from Truth. The highest level is the pure self, and at this level there is no duality, no separation from God.

The self is actually a living process rather than a static structure in the psyche. The self is not a thing. The Arabic term is related to words for "breath," "soul," "essence," "self," and "nature." It refers to a process that comes about from the interaction of body and soul. When the soul becomes embodied, it forgets its original nature and becomes enmeshed in material creation. This creates the self.

The lowest level of the self, the ego or lower personality, is made up of impulses, or drives, to satisfy desires. These drives dominate reason or judgment and are defined as the forces in one's nature that must be brought under control. The self is a product of the self-centered consciousness - the ego, the "I." The self must be transformed - this is the ideal. The self is like a wild horse; it is powerful and virtually uncontrollable. As the self becomes trained, or transformed, it becomes capable of serving the individual. Sheikh Muzaffer has written:‘The self is not bad in itself. Never blame your ‘self’. Part of the work of Sufism is to change the state of your self. The lowest state is that of being completely dominated by your wants and desires. The next state is to struggle with yourself, to seek to act according to reason and higher ideals and to criticize yourself when you fail. A much higher state is to be satisfied with whatever God provides for you, whether it means comfort or discomfort, fulfillment of physical needs or not.’

According to many Sufi teachers, there are seven levels of the self. They are seven levels of development, ranging from absolutely self-centered and egotistical to purely spiritual.

The Commanding Self: The first level has also been described as the domineering self or the self that incites to evil. The commanding self seeks to dominate and to control each individual. At this level there is unbridled selfishness and no sense of morality or compassion.
Descriptions of this level are similar to descriptions of the id in psychoanalytic theory; it is closely linked to lust and aggression. These have been called the swine and the dogs of the self - the sensual traits are like swine, the ferocious ones like fierce dogs or wolves. Wrath, greed, sensual appetites, passion, and envy are examples of traits at this level of the self. This is the realm of physical and egoistic desires.
At this level people are like addicts who are in denial. Their lives are dominated by uncontrollable addictions to negative traits and habits, yet they refuse to believe they have a problem. They have no hope of change at this level, because they do not acknowledge any need to change.

The Regretful Self: People who have not developed beyond the first level are unaware and unconscious. As the light of faith grows, insight dawns, perhaps for the first time. The negative effects of a habitually self-centered approach to the world become apparent to the regretful self.
At this level, wants and desires still dominate, but now the person repents from time to time and tries to follow higher impulses. As Sheikh Muzaffer points out:
There is a battle between the self, the lower self, and the soul. This battle will continue through life. The question is, Who will educate whom? Who will become the master of whom? If the soul becomes the master, then you will be a believer, one who embraces Truth. If the lower self becomes master of the soul, you will be one who denies Truth.
At this second level, people do not yet have the ability to change their way of life in a significant way. However, as they see their faults more clearly, their regret and desire for change grow. At this level, people are like addicts who are beginning to understand the pain they have caused themselves and others. The addiction is still far too strong to change. That requires far stronger medicine.

The Inspired Self: At the next level, the seeker begins to take genuine pleasure in prayer, meditation, and other spiritual activities. Only now does the individual taste the joys of spiritual experience. Now the seeker is truly motivated by ideals such as compassion, service, and moral values. This is the beginning of the real practice of Sufism. Before this stage, the best anyone can accomplish is superficial outer understanding and mechanical outer worship.
Though one is not free from desires and ego, this new level of motivation and spiritual experience significantly reduces the power of these forces for the first time. What is essential here is to live in terms of higher values. Unless these new motivations become part of a way of life, they will wither and die away. Behaviors common to the inspired self include gentleness, compassion, creative acts, and moral action. Overall, a person who is at the stage of the inspired self seems to be emotionally mature, respectable, and respected. (about dangers at this stage)

The Contented Self: The seeker is now at peace. The struggles of the earlier stages are basically over. The old desires and attachments are no longer binding. The ego-self begins to let go, allowing the individual to come more closely in contact with the Divine.
This level of self predisposes one to be liberal, grateful, trusting, and adoring. If one accepts difficulties with the same overall sense of security with which one accepts benefits, it may be said that one has attained the level of the contented self. Developmentally, this level marks a period of transition. The self can now begin to "disintegrate" and let go of all previous concern with self-boundaries and then begin to "reintegrate" as an aspect of the universal self.

The Pleased Self: At this stage the individual is not only content with his or her lot, but pleased with even the difficulties and trials of life, realizing that these difficulties come from God. The state of the pleased self is very different from the way we usually experience the world, focused on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. A Sufi story illustrates this:
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna once shared a cucumber with Ayaz, his most loyal and beloved companion. Ayaz happily ate his half of the cucumber, but when the sultan bit into his half, it was so bitter he immediately spit it out.
"How could you manage to eat something so bitter? The sultan exclaimed, "It tasted like chalk or like bitter poison!"
"My beloved sultan," answered Ayaz, "I have enjoyed so many favors and bounties from your hand that whatever you give me tastes sweet."
When a person's love and gratitude to God reach this level, he or she has reached the stage of the pleased self.

The Self Pleasing to God: Those who have reached the next stage realize that all power to act comes from God, that they can do nothing by themselves. They no longer fear anything or ask for anything.
The Sufi sage Ibn 'Arabi described this level as the inner marriage or self and soul. The self pleasing to God has achieved genuine inner unity and wholeness. At earlier stages, people struggle with the world because they experience multiplicity. A broken mirror creates a thousand different reflections of a single image. If the mirror could be made whole again, it would then reflect the single, unified image. By healing the multiplicity within, the Sufi experiences the world as whole and unified.

The Pure Self: Those few who attain the final level have transcended the self entirely. There is no ego or separate self left, only union with God. At this stage, the individual has truly realized the truth, "There is no god but God." The Sufi now knows that there is nothing but God, that only the Divine exists, and that any sense of individuality or separateness is an illusion.
Rumi illuminates this state for us:
If you could get rid
Of yourself just once,
The secret of secrets
Would open to you.The face of the unknown,
Hidden beyond the universe
Would appear on the
Mirror of your perception

Anger and Dejection--An Islamic Perspective.


by Dr. Shahid Athar

When God created human beings, He created many emotions and desires within him, which we call human instincts. These include positive qualities such as recognizing truth and expressing it, love and compassion, pure physiological desires such as being thirsty , hungry and in need of sex.Then there are some negative qualities such as hate and anger, with resultant violence and dejection. The angels who were the witnesses to Adam's creation knew about some of the negative qualities of man and questioned the creation of this new being who was to create "'mischief on earth." (Quran 2:30)However, at the same time, the Creator also instilled some protective mechanisms for fighting these negative instincts."Man was created weak," says the Quran. During the moment of weakness, we succumb to the designs of our enemy, that is, the devil, who "will attack us from front, from behind, from the side," in order to divert us from God consciousness and return to our true animistic nature. Thus anger by itself is not unnatural; it is the expression of anger which if done wrongfully, can lead to problems. The difference between the wild beasts and wild humans is the difference of free will. When a lion or a wolf is angry, he does not think. When a man becomes angry as a result of provocation, he has a choice to control his anger or to respond to it as he has been taught by the teachings of prophets and saints, or forget all that and become a wild animal. Thus anger takes place when we are not in control of ourselves, but the devil is controlling us.Anger is a de stabilizing thought. It is the most dividing emotion between friends; it takes away judgment, leads to depression, madness and wrong actions that we would repent later on when we are not angry. But why do we get angry to begin with? It is either an unexpected provocation or unexpected situation which leads to frustration and an angry response.During anger, one can physically or verbally abuse a person that he or she loves, hurt another living being like an animal, or during the dejection phase of anger, one can even hurt him- or herself and even commit suicide. When anger is directed toward a group of people, then it can manifest in terrorism, whether against people of other faiths or nations, or against even one's own government as is seen in the case of the Oklahoma City bombing. However, all anger is not of satanic origin. How can we blame Satan for a child who is angry because he does not get his toy or when he is hungry ?The point I am making is that the natural fulfillment of normal desires, whether in terms of food or sex, is a prerequisite for prevention of anger. There are many chemicals and hormones which affect our moods and behavior. It is well known that hypoglycemia and hyperthyroidism precipitate irritability and anger. We must keep our hormones in balance in addition to facilitate our spiritual well-being.Prophet Mohammed (Pbuh), who was sent to mankind to teach them good moral conduct, learned to control his anger toward the Unbelievers and teach them appropriate expressions. He constantly spoke against being angry. One companion asked him, Give me some short advice by virtue of which I hope for good in the life hereafter, and he said, "Don't be angry." Another person asked, what will save me from the wrath of God, and he said, "Do not express your anger." A third person asked three times, 0 Prophet of God, give me an order to do a short good deed, and he said, "Don't be angry." Once he asked a question of his companion, "Who among you do you consider a strong man?" They said, the one who can defeat so-and-so wrestler in a fight, and he said, that is not so. The one who is strong is the one who can control himself at the time of anger. He also said that anger is like fire, which destroys you from within, and it can also lead you to the fire of hell by your own expressions of anger unjustly.Being angry is like being drunk. In both cases, we do not know what we are doing, hurting ourselves or someone else, and afterwards when the intoxication is over, we repent. Caliph Omar used to say, the one with all its goodn anger gets salvation. Shiekh Hassan Basri said that one of the signs of the Believers is that his anger will not prevail over him. Anger should be distinguished between the natural response to wrongdoing and disbelief.A person who has no feelings about oppression, wrongdoing and disbelief is, in fact, an impotent person emotionally. It has been said, "Evil flourishes when a few good people do not do anything to oppose it." Thus response to injustice and operation in a civilized way is the appropriate expression of anger. Being neutral to injustice is equal to contributing to injustice. Sometimes taking arms in order to fight the oppression and injustice, in defense or in off is the basis of "the just war." However, this "just war" is not justified on a personal level.Caliph Ali was once fighting in a war imposed on Muslims, and the chief of the Unbelievers confronted him. During the fight, the Ali was able to overcome him, who fell down on the ground and Ali was about to kill him. This person, knowing his fate now, had no choice so he spit on the face of Ali. Ali immediately got up and left him alone. The man came running to him and asked, "You had a chance to kill me since I was defeated; how come you didn't use your sword?" Ali said, "I have no personal animosity toward you. I was fighting you because of your disbelief, on behalf of God. If I had killed you after you spat on my face, then it would have become my personal revenge which I do not wish to take." That Unbeliever chief became a Muslim immediately.When Prophet Mohammed (Pbuh) became angry at someone else's wrong actions or disbeliefs, he never expressed it with his hand or tongue. His companions knew that he was angry by looking at his face, which would be red and with some sweat on his forehead, and he would keep quiet for a moment, trying to control himself.What happens to us physiologically when we are angry? Our heart rate and blood pressure go up; this is a direct effect of excessive adrenalin in our system. Our physical strength increases although spiritual strength decreases. Our intellect or power to reason goes away, and things we would not justify in a normal state become acceptable. The organs of our body which are otherwise under our control, become out of control. Thus, our tongues become abusive, and we would say words which would hurt someone else. Our hands are out of control, and we will hit someone or sometimes ourselves. Our feet are out of control, and we might kick some one whether a human, an animal or sometimes a broken machine.How do we control anger? Contrary to other teaching, I believe that to root out anger is impossible and unnatural, and may even be harmful. A person who does not control or redirect the expression of anger may have built up anger within himself, which may hurt him physically. Apart from being depressed and having a feeling of dejection, during the phase of unexpressed anger, his constant, rapid heart rate and high blood pressure may harm his heart and even lead to a heart attack over the long run. Apart from being violent, during the phase of anger since his mind does not work, he may make a wrong decision about his job or personal relationship which will affect his future.
Medicine for AngerThe first preventive medicine is to avoid being too sensitive to provocation and become "deaf, dumb and mute." It may be necessary for some people to engage in something else to divert themselves. For saints, it may be advisable to engage in remembrance of God or meditation, but for common folk, they need some worldly tools. A couple went to Prophet Mohammed and said, We have been fighting each other for many years. Each time she says something to hurt my feelings, I become angry, and then I fight back and this fight comes to such a degree that I am afraid that this verbal fight may,become physical, or we may end up divorced. So please advise how we can control our anger. He told the husband that when your wife provokes you and makes you angry, take a sip of your water in your mouth and do not swallow it or spit it out, but keep it there until she has calmed down. Well, he practiced that and a few months later, he reported back that it did work.Since we believe that anger is an expression of satanic control, we must not let this control take over. The Prophet had advised us to say, "During anger, I seek refuge from lead to problemrotection of God." He also advised us that when angry, one should sit down or lie down as it is not easy to hit someone else in those positions. Obviously, the best remedy is to think about God and "ask yourself a question, "are you in control of yourself, or would you allow God to take control of you?" Think of God's anger and punishment. Is God's wrath less than your wrath? And what happens when He expresses His wrath? We humans who seek forgiveness from God must forgive others first. When one forgive someone else, it establishes peace and tranquility in one's heart, but at the same time, the matter of injustice or wrong actions which made one angry, become a dispute between him and God; and if one do not take revenge and forgive, God might act on ones behalf. The first attribute of God/Allah that we Muslims are reminded (of) is Ar Rahman-Ar Rahim that is, Kind and Merciful. God Himself said, my mercy overtakes my wrath, and He told in one of the hadith qudsi , 'O son of Adam, when you get angry, remember Me." Thus, remembrance of God and meditation will keep us on the right track. One of the meditation words is ya Halim, which is one of the attributes of God, being the Mild One. One can also pray to God to take control of the situation and the person or the people who have caused His anger. We must also think that tone life so dear to us, is a temporary life, and we must not forget our death and destroy the life of eternity at the cost of this life. Washing one's face with cold water or taking a cold shower is also helpful.Thus it is important for one to redirect the energy in engaging in something else. However, the height of sainthood is to do the opposite of the provoking person expects one to do. If he expects you to rebuke him or verbally abuse him back, then one should tell him, I love you, and mention his good qualities. If he expects one to physically attack him, then one embraces him and forgives him. That is how the saying, "turn the other cheek" came about. One will become a calm person when he makes peace with himself, his Creator and his surroundings. Anger is a costly weed; it costs one his health, life in this world, and the life in the Hereafter. This weed must be rooted out to allow the healthy plant of righteousness, piety and service to God and His creation nurture and grow.
DejectionDejection is a state of sad thought, depression and a feeling of being worthless. This could be a result of anger with self or someone else, unexpressed anger, failure and frustration. Dejection is a deadly disease which can harm the body acutely or on a chronic basis. and can irreversibly destroy one's relationships. It is during this state of dejection that people have suicidal thoughts and sometimes actions. During anger, however, a person tries to manifest his verbal and physical strengthening dejection, he completely gives up, thinking he is no good. Dejection slowly builds up while anger is a more acute manifestation, which is like a moth which slowly eats away the human spirit and body.Dejection can be the result of losses, financial or of a dear one, or even failure in work, education and business. Many times terminally ill patients, without any hope of getting better, would also be dejected. Sometimes dejection or depression is due to a chemical imbalance just like anger, whether it is a psychotropic condition with depletion of brain amines, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, or hormonal imbalance like hypothyroidism and Addison's disease. Therefore, in all cases of depression, when a physician sees them, he does and he must evaluate them for a treatable organic cause.The way to fight dejection again is a mind-control phenomenon. We must realize that we are not in control of our destiny. Certain failures and adversity have been designed to teach us certain lessons. We must know that someone else is in control of our past, present and future. This is what believer in God is what Caliph Ali once said, that "what makes me a believer in God is the fact that I realize that after doing everything humanly possible to make certain things go right, it goes wrong unexpectedly, making me believe that someone else was in control of that situation, not me."When we give good advice to our teenaged children, encouraging them to do good and avoiding something wrong and they don't listen, as a result they get into trouble. It is human to be sad, but it is unnecessary to be dejected, thinking that I am not a good parent. We will be questioned for things we can do that we must do, but we will not be questioned on things that are beyond our control. The remedy for dejection is hope. God made hopelessness unlawful by saying, "Do not despair of God's mercy." Thus, no matter at what level of despair, depression and frustration we are, whether loss of a loved one or a job, or as the result of anger from someone else, we must not give up hope as there is a ray of hope at the end of the tunnel. The greatest hope is mercy from God. Thus, whoever has lost worldly possessions, expects and hopes that God will replace his losses in a better way. The.he person who has lost a dear one hopes to see that dear one in the life hereafter. Hope is the medicine which keeps one alive and going, which is when we say, hang on, we mean hang onto the thread of hope. It is not unnatural to be sad over situations and events. Even Prophet Mohammed (Pbuh) used to be sad, looking at the plight of Unbelievers and their rejection of his message for oneness of God, and not becoming Muslims. And God reminded him by saying, "It is not your duty to make them Muslims, but just proclaim the truth, and God gives guidance to those whom He wishes."During dejection, there is darkness, but in hope, there is light. Therefore, one must pray for this light to illuminate the heart so that we can see beyond what is causing the suffering today. If I knew that I would not see tomorrow, I might get depressed, but the fact that I hope I will see tomorrow with all its goodness, the love of my family, my friends, dear ones, the flowers, the music, that I go to sleep in peace, turning myself to God. We must pray for God's mercy and forgiveness so that we can love and forgive ourselves and God's other creations and have peace with ourselves, our Creator and our surroundings.We Muslims believe that all our suffering, failures and adversities are nothing but a test from God, who has said that "You will not enter Paradise until you are tested. " He has also said, "Be sure we will test you with something of fear and hunger, a small loss in wealth and lives and the fruits (of your labors), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere, when afflicted with calamities, to God we belong and to Him shall we return."' (Chapter 2:15, 5-157).

Modern Stress And Its Cure From Qur'an.


Shahid Athar , M.D.

Stress is the most common aliment of modern age. It has been implicated in the causation of peptic ulcer disease, coronary heart disease, depression, auto immune disease, hypertension, diabetes and even cancer. In milder form it manifests in form of unrest, violence, at work, school and home.
Common medical problems like tension headache, insomnia, and obesity are also attributed to unusual stress. None of us are free from stress but some deal with it better than others.

Stress results from the following factors:
a. Fear of the unknown and trying to see through and control the destiny.
b. Losses in our life of people and things dear to us and our inability to recover those losses.
c. Inner conflict between our heart and mind between what is known to be the truth and our failure to accept it as truth. Acceptance of truth may require changing our habits and way of life which we may adhere to for some reason like pleasure, joys, taste, pride in race or heritage etc.

Let us examine how Quran deals with such situations.Our losses are a trial for us:
"Be sure we will test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives, but give glad tidings to those who are steadfast, who say when afflicted with calamity: To God we belong and to him is our return. They are those on who (DESCEND) blessings from God and mercy and they are the once that receive guidance. 2:155
Thus in Islam, we do not have concept of the ownership of goods and life. Everything belongs to God and returns to him. So if we don't own that thing why mourn our loss?
a. Our destiny is predetermined. We do not have control on that part. What we have control over is a limited free will, that is our actions, our choice to do good or bad, to believe in God or not to believe in Him, but we have no control over tomorrow's event not related to our actions i.e. whether my wife will have a son or daughter, whether his/her eyes will be brown or black, or whether I will have an accident or not tomorrow. WorTying over such things is of no use.
b. Rejection of faith in Quran is called a disease. This denial of truth is due to arrogance."In their heart there is a disease and God has increased their disease and grievous is their penalty because they lie to themselves." 2:10Therefore after lying to ourselves, we set up an inner conflict - between heart and mind. In order to contain that conflict the mind sends signals to glands for secretion of harmones like adrenaline which leads to rapid heart rate, perspiration, tremor, the basis of lie detector test.This lying conflict could be due to "SMALL" crimes like theft or adultery, or big crimes like rejection of God.
3 stages of spiritual development of soul.
a. Nafsul Ammara: -The Passionate soul "I do not absolve myself Lo the (human) soul is prone to evil, save that whenever my Lord has mercy. Lo, Lord is forgiving; merciful." 12:53 (Surah Yusuf)This soul inclines toward sensual Pleasure, passion and self gratification , anger, envy, greed, and conceit. Its concerns are pleasure of body, gratification of physical appetite, and ego.Hadith "your most-ardent-enemy is your evil self which resides within your body" (Bukhaii).If this evil soul is not checked wiR lead to unusual stress and its resultant effects. -
b. Nafsul Lawanunah (The Reproaching Soul). "Nay, I swear by the reproaching soul" 75:1This soul is conscious or aware of Evil, resists it, asks for God's grace, and pardon, repents and tries to ammend and hopes to achieve salvation."And (There are) others who have acknowledged their faults. They mix a righteous action with another that was bad. It may be that Allah will relent toward them. Lo! Allah is relenting, merciful." 9:102Hadith "These are two impulses within us. One spirit which calls towards good and confirms the truth. He who feels this impulse should know that it comes from Allah. Another impulse comes from our enemy (Devil) which leads to doubt and holds untruth and encourages evil. He who feels this should seek refuge in Allah from the accursed devil."This soul warns people of their vain desire, guides and opens the door to virtute and righteousness. It is a positive step in spiritual growth.
c. The satisfied soul (Nafsul Mutmainnah). "O (you) soul in (complete) rest and satisfaction. Come back to your Lord, will pleased (yourself) and will pleasing unto him. Enter you then among my devotees, enter you in my heaven." 89:27-30This is the highest state of spiritual development. satisfied soul is the state of bliss, content and peace. The soul is at peace because it knows that inspite of its failures in this world, It will return to God. Purified of tension, it emerges from the struggle with obstacles blocking the peace of mind and heart.What should we do in panic and despair? In panic non-believers behave differently than believers. They have no one to return to, to ask for mercy and forgiveness, their life is this life, which they cannot control, thus get more depressed and increase in their state of wrong doing. Then we will see that if they are used to casual drinking will start drinking more and become alcoholic, or a barbital criminal.
On the other hand a believer should do the following:
a. Increase dhikr (Remembrance of God)"who have believed and whose heart have Rest in the remembrance of God. Verify in the remembrance of God, do hearts find rest." 13:28
b. Increase their prayer."O you who believe, seek help with steadfastness and prayer. For God is with those who are steadfast." 2:153
c. Ask forgiveness"And I have said: seek forgiveness from your Lord. Lo He was ever forgiving." 71:10
In addition to above we are also asked to continue to struggle to up-grade ourselves." surely God does not change the condition in which a people are in until they change that which is in themselves." 13:11
In summary, I conclude that stress results from lack of inner peace due to conflicts within us and leads to external disturbances in our behavior and health. Inner peace can only be achieved by believing in God, the All Mighty, and remembering him frequently and asking for his help and forgiveness in times of difficulties.

Tuesday, January 23, 2007

Islamic Paradox

By: Maged Taman

One of the appalling facts in Islam is its apparent paradox. In a way it helps many in the west to dispute Islam in one glance. In another way it makes some wander why about 1.2 billion people are following this religion and Islam is the fastest growing religion. The paradox is related mainly to the inability and unwillingness to examine fairly Islam. I examine here this paradox:
1- Peace or wars: Like Judaism and Christianity Islam is a peaceful religion. However oppression of God's people have occurred through history and people fought back the oppressors. When there is no oppression coexistence is the role in Islam.
2- Pro or anti-Jew-Christian: When Jews and Christians are under Islamic role they are called "the people in our protection" they should be justly treated and protected. Discrimination and oppression are anti-Islamic. For Jews and Christians that are rolling their countries international cooperation and even alliance is encouraged. We can get the best of the two worlds.
3- Freedom or oppression of women: The problem with Islamic ultra-conservatives is that they try to recopy the Islamic world at the time of the prophet. Women did not work most of time because of hardship of jobs. With keeping dignity of women they can work and grow in most professions.
4- Spirituality or Materialism: Islam is a very balanced religion. The normal is to marry one wife and raise a family. Polygamy is very exceptional. It was a test to the prophet and no one matches his spirituality. Material life is in fact lived through our spirituality. You act on all your life as if God watching you. You enjoy all the gifts God has given you. In fact, a real good Muslim is a great asset to any work place. He should be honest, nice, considerate, conscience, ...
5- Unity or disparity: Islam is supposed to be one sect only like other religions and everything in the world Satan has spoiled. For good Muslims even the unity of each religion should be considered a triumph. Coexistence would be much easier as the world is less diverse.
6- Domination or coexistence: Any good Muslim will like to have every one in the world a good Muslim. However, we have to do it politically right. We are not going to destroy the world in order to dominate it. Similarly, a lot of Muslims will refuse to live under oppression. Coexistence is the best way to strike the right balance. However this will need a lot of politics. If someone converts to Islam at any time we will be happy. However we need to convert Muslims first.
7- Revenge or forgiveness: Justice is the right balance. Forgiveness is the role for minor and unintentional things. Forgiveness is usually linked to ability. This means that you were able to retaliate and then you chose to forgive.
8- Love or hate: the best love in Islam is that of God and for people that are righteous and share you the love of God. If you love God you obey him. Hate is very exceptional and stems from injustices. Love of God is more stressed in Christianity while fear of God is more in the old testament and Quran. God basically tried everything with us to get us righteous. So love him or fear him or have it both in your heart. Obeying him is the real proof if you love or fear him. In Islam actually it is believe that God would forgive injustices against him than injustices we do to each other.Thus Islam could be controversial if you choose to and is very truthful if you go sincerely through.

Islam And Psychology: Behaviorism

According to Gary DeMar in article in Behaviorism originated with the work of John B. Watson, an American psychologist. Watson claimed that psychology was not concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Instead, psychology would be concerned only with behavior. In this way, men could be studied objectively, like rats and apes.
Watson's work was based on the experiments of Ivan Pavlov, who had studied animals' responses to conditioning. In Pavlov's best-known experiment, he rang a bell as he fed some dogs several meals. Each time the dogs heard the bell they knew that a meal was coming, and they would begin to salivate. Pavlov then rang the bell without bringing food, but the dogs still salivated. They had been "conditioned" to salivate at the sound of a bell. Pavlov believed, as Watson was later to emphasize, that humans react to stimuli in the same way.
Behaviorism is associated today with the name of B.F. Skinner, who made his reputation by testing Watson's theories in the laboratory. Skinner's studies led him to reject Watson's almost exclusive emphasis on reflexes and conditioning. People respond to their environment, he argued, but they also operate on the environment to produce certain consequences.
Skinner developed the theory of "operant conditioning," the idea that we behave the way we do because this kind of behavior has had certain consequences in the past. For example, if your girlfriend gives you a kiss when you give her flowers, you will be likely to give her flowers when you want a kiss. You will be acting in expectation of a certain reward. Like Watson, however, Skinner denied that the mind or feelings play any part in determining behavior. Instead, our experience of reinforcements determines our behavior.
Behaviorism originated in the field of psychology, but it has had a much wider influence. Its concepts and methods are used in education, and many education courses at college are based on the same assumptions about man as behaviorism. Behaviorism has infiltrated sociology, in the form of sociobiology, the belief that moral values are rooted in biology. What are the presuppositions of behaviorism?
1. Behaviorism is naturalistic. This means that the material world is the ultimate reality, and everything can be explained in terms of natural laws. Man has no soul and no mind, only a brain that responds to external stimuli.
2. Behaviorism teaches that man is nothing more than a machine that responds to conditioning. One writer has summarized behaviorism in this way: "The central tenet of behaviorism is that thoughts, feelings, and intentions, mental processes all, do not determine what we do. Our behavior is the product of our conditioning. We are biological machines and do not consciously act; rather we react to stimuli."1
The idea that men are "biological machines" whose minds do not have any influence on their actions is contrary to the biblical view that man is the very image of God - the image of a creative, planning, thinking God. In fact, Skinner goes so far as to say that the mind and mental processes are "metaphors and fictions" and that "behavior is simply part of the biology of the organism."2 Skinner also recognizes that his view strips man of his "freedom and dignity," but insists that man as a spiritual being does not exist.
3. Consistently, behaviorism teaches that we are not responsible for our actions. If we are mere machines, without minds or souls, reacting to stimuli and operating on our environment to attain certain ends, then anything we do is inevitable. Sociobiology, a type of behaviorism, compares man to a computer: Garbage in, garbage out.
This also conflicts with a Christian worldview. Our past experiences and our environment do affect the way we act, of course, but these factors cannot account for everything we do. The Bible teaches that we are basically covenantal creatures, not biological creatures. Our nearest environment is God Himself, and we respond most fundamentally to Him. We respond either in obedience to or rebellion against His Word.
4. Behaviorism is manipulative. It seeks not merely to understand human behavior, but to predict and control it. From his theories, Skinner developed the idea of "shaping." By controlling rewards and punishments, you can shape the behavior of another person.
As a psychiatrist, one of Skinner's goals is to shape his patients' behavior so that he or she will react in more socially acceptable ways. Skinner is quite clear that his theories should be used to guide behavior: "The experimental analysis of behavior has led to an effective technology, applicable to education, psychotherapy, and the design of cultural practices in general, which will be more effective when it is not competing with practices that have had the unwarranted support of mentalistic theories."3
In other words, Skinner wants behaviorism to be the basis for manipulating patients, students, and whole societies.
The obvious questions, of course, are: Who will use the tools? Who will pull the strings? Who will manipulate the technology? No doubt, Skinner would say that only someone trained in behavioral theory and practice would be qualified to "shape" the behavior of other persons. But this is contrary to the biblical view, which commands us to love our neighbor, not to manipulate him.
Gary Demar say in end of his article: In summary, the ethical consequences of behaviorism are great. Man is stripped of his responsibility, freedom, and dignity, and is reduced to a purely biological being, to be "shaped" by those who are able to use the tools of behaviorism effectively.

Islamic View:
Man without soul and mind can be animal. It is true many people behaviour can be conditioned reflex according to this theory. If it is not for God and religion most of us would be this way. Examine these verses of the Quran:

95:4 Verily, We create man in the best conformation;
95:5 and thereafter We reduce him to the lowest of low
95:6 excepting only such as attain to faith and do good works: and theirs shall be a reward unending!
95:7 What, then, [O man,] could henceforth cause thee to give the lie to this moral law?
95:8 Is not God the most just of judges?

1 David Cohen, "Behaviorism," in The Oxford Companion to the Mind, Richard L. Gregory, ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 71.2 B.F. Skinner, "Skinner on Behaviorism," in Ibid., p. 75. 3 Ibid.
Excerpt used from Surviving College Successfully: A Complete Manual for the Rigors of Academic Combat by Gary DeMar, 1988 by Primero Resources, used by permission of Wolgemuth & Hyatt Publishers, Inc. Available from your local Christian bookstore.