Thursday, September 30, 2010

Surah 35 - Faatir - The Originator


[Author's note] This is the 35th Surah of the Qur'an. It has 45 verses. Allah is the Creator and the Originator of all things, meaning that He creates from nothing. He Initiates matter. With the Glorious Name of Allah, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness.

35:1 All Praise is due to Allah, the Originator of all Highs and their Lows, Who appoints His angels as message-bearers having wings two, three and four. (Many of the angels, the physical laws in the Universe, have more than one function). He increases in creation what He Will. For, Allah is the Appointer of due measure of all things, and He is Able to do all things. 35:2 Whatever Grace Allah opens for mankind, none can withhold it. And whatever He withholds, none can release, for He is the Almighty, the Wise. (He uses His Might in Mercy and Wisdom). 35:3 O Mankind! Think of the blessings of Allah upon you. Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and earth? There is no god but He. How could you wander in the wilderness of thought! 35:4 (O Messenger) if they deny you, Messengers before you were also denied. But all affairs ultimately end up in His Court. 35:5 O Mankind! Indeed Allah's Promise is true. (The Law of Requital is an inevitable reality). So let not the present life deceive you, nor let the Deceiver deceive you about Allah. (Deceiver = Satan = Selfish desire. Also misguided people and their propaganda). 35:6 Behold, Satan is a foe unto you; so treat him as a foe. He only calls his party to become companions of the Blazing Fire. 35:7 For those who are bent on rejecting the Truth, is a severe retribution. And for those who accept the Truth and work for the welfare of others, is the protection of forgiveness and a great reward. 35:8 Can you think of he whose persistence in evil blunts his sensitivity - so that his deeds seem fair to him? Verily, Allah lets go astray any who wants to go astray, just as He guides any who wants to be guided. Therefore, waste not yourself in sorrowing over them. Verily, Allah is Aware of all that they contrive. 35:9 And Allah it is Who sends the winds and they raise a cloud; then We lead it unto a dead land and revive the earth after it had been lifeless. Thus is the Resurrection (and revival of individuals and nations with Divine Guidance). 35:10 Whoever desires dignity should know that to Allah belongs all Dignity. Unto Him ascend all good words, and He exalts the works that help others. (That is how individuals and nations can ascend in honor). But those who plot imbalance in the lives of others, for them is severe punishment and their plotting, in the end, will come to naught. 35:11 (Recall your common humble origin.) Allah created you from dust, then from male and female gametes, and then He makes you pairs. And no female becomes pregnant, nor gives birth without His Knowledge (according to His Appointed Science, without exceptions). No one lives long, and no one lives short, but by His Law (3:144). Behold, all this is easy to Allah. ('Nutfah' = Gamete, male or female). 35:12 (Observe the diversity in Nature.) Thus the two seas (and subsoil waters) are not alike. One is fresh, good to drink, the other undrinkable, salty (25:53). Yet, from either of them you eat tender meat and extract ornament that you may wear. And you see ships sailing through the waves seeking His Bounty, so that you may have cause to be grateful. 35:13 He makes the night grow longer by shortening the day, and makes the day grow longer by shortening the night. And He has committed the sun and the moon to service, each running to an appointed term. Such is Allah, your Lord - unto Him belongs all Dominion. And those whom you call upon instead of Him, do not own so much as the husk of a date-stone. (4:53), (4:124). 35:14 When you call them (the dead 'saints'), they don't even hear your call, and even if they were to hear they won't be able to respond to you. On the Day of Resurrection they will disown your 'partnership'. And none can inform you like the One Who is Aware. 35:15 O Mankind! It is you who stand in need of Allah. And Allah! He is the Absolute, the Owner of Praise. 35:16 If He Will, He can do away with you and bring some new creation. 35:17 This is not at all difficult for Allah. 35:18 And no person, being already burdened with his own doings, will be made to carry the burden of another. And if a laden one calls for help with his load, none may carry part of it even if he is a close relative. Hence, you can warn only those who understand their Lord's Law of Requital knowing that even their actions done in secrecy have consequences. So, such people follow the Divine Commands closely. Whoever grows in virtue does so for the good of his "Self". And the destination of all is to Allah. 35:19 The blind of reason and the seeing are not equal. 35:20 Nor are the Darkness and the Light. 35:21 Nor the cooling shade and the scorching heat. 35:22 Nor are the living equal with the dead. Behold, Allah makes him hear who wants to hear. You cannot make hear the dead of heart like those who are in the graves. 35:23 You are but a Warner. 35:24 Verily, We have sent you with the Truth, as a bearer of glad news, and a Warner. And there is not a nation but a Warner has passed among them. 35:25 (O Prophet) if they deny you, those before them also denied. Their Messengers came to them with all evidence of the Truth, and with Books of Divine Wisdom, and the Scripture giving light. 35:26 Then My Law of Requital seized the rejecters of the Truth, and how intense was My rejection! 35:27 Have you not seen that Allah causes water to fall from the height. And from the same water We produce fruit and flower of different color, just as in the mountains are streaks of varying colors - white, red, and varying shades of black. 35:28 And of human beings, and other creatures, and the cattle have diverse colors. This is how it is: of all His servants only the ULAMA get some idea of the Glory of Allah (by examining the wonders in Nature. ULAMA = men and women of scientific knowledge. They understand that) Allah is Almighty, the Absolver of imperfections. 35:29 Verily those who read the Scripture of Allah (in Nature) and follow Allah's Commands, and spend on others the provision We have given them secretly and openly, are conducting business that will never perish. 35:30 He will pay their wages and give them yet more of His Bounty. He is Absolver of imperfections, Responsive to gratitude. 35:31 And (O Prophet) all that We have revealed in this Book to you is the very Truth, confirming the Divine Origin of the previous Scriptures. For, behold, of the needs of His servants Allah is fully Aware, all-Seeing. 35:32 And so, We have bestowed this Book (on you) as a heritage from Our servants whom We chose. And among people are those who (ignore it and thus) hurt themselves. Others will have a lukewarm attitude toward it, and some who, by Allah's leave, will be foremost in attaining all the good in it. That! Indeed that is, the Great Bounty. 35:33 Hence, the Gardens of Eden of eternal bliss will they enter, therein to be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls, and therein to be dressed in garments of silk. (And right here in this world they will establish a society in which life will be pleasant and honorable 22:23). 35:34 And they will say, "All praise to Allah Who has put away grief from us. Verily, Our Lord is Absolver of imperfections, Responsive to gratitude. 35:35 Who, out of His Bounty, has settled us in the mansion of Eternity. Neither do we experience toil herein, nor any sense of weariness." (20:118). 35:36 But for those who reject the Truth, is fire of Hell. Therein they neither end up dying nor is the torment lightened for them. Thus We requite all those who remain ungrateful (for the Guidance). 35:37 And in that suffering they will cry, "Our Lord! Get us out of here. We will do right, not that we used to do." Did We not give you a life-long opportunity replete with reminders for whoever would bethink? And a Warner had come to you. Taste then the fruit of your transgressions, for there is no helper for the transgressors of Divine Laws. 35:38 Verily, Allah is the Knower of the Hidden realities of the heavens. Behold, He is Knower of what is in the hearts. 35:39 He it is Who has given you supremacy in the earth (2:30). So whoever denies this blessing, his denial is upon him. Their denial increases their deprivation according to the Laws of their Lord, and their denial only increases their own loss (causing them to be content with a subhuman existence). 35:40 Say, "Have you seen your 'partners' whom you call upon besides Allah? Show me what they created of the earth! Or have they any share in the heavens? Or have We given them a Scripture as evidence to prove their fallacies?" Nay, those who exploit the weak, support one another with delusions. 35:41 Verily, it is Allah Who upholds the celestial bodies and the earth, so they deviate not from their course. And if they were to deviate, there is none, no one whatsoever that can uphold them after He ceases to uphold them. Verily, He is Clement, Absolver of imperfections. 35:42 Thus it is, yet - they used to swear by Allah with their most solemn oaths that if a Warner came to them, they would follow his guidance better than any nation ever could. But now that a Warner has come unto them, it arouses in them nothing but aversion. 35:43 Their arrogance in the land and their evil schemes! Yet an evil scheme engulfs its designers. Are they waiting for anything but the way the ancients were dealt with? Yes! No change you will ever find in the Laws of Allah, and no deviation you will ever find in the Laws of Allah. 35:44 Have they not traveled in the land and seen what happened to those before them? And they were greater in might than these are. Allah is not such that anything in the heavens and the earth could foil His Authority, for He is Knower, Supreme Controller. 35:45 Now if Allah took mankind to task by that which they earn by their deeds, He would not leave a creature on its surface. However, He grants them Respite unto an appointed term. And when their term comes to an end, then, verily, they come to know that Allah is ever Seer of His servants. ('Not leave a creature' - Life on the planet earth exists for and manifests itself in the highest form as the humans (2:30), (35:39)).

Surah 20 in the Quran Ta Ha - The Ideal Prophet


[Author's note] This is the 20th Surah of the Qur'an. It has 135 verses many of which are very brief. Ta Ha is the metaphor for perfection illustrated by the full moon. All Prophets are one in purpose but their timings and jurisdictions have been different. Muhammad S.A.W. is the Final Prophet / Messenger on whom the Divine Message to humanity was perfected forever. The Title TA HA represents, and linguistically implies THE IDEAL PROPHET. As per style of the Qur'an, the title of a Surah is not at all restrictive. This Surah makes a most beautiful use of allegories. The forthcoming verses give us a beautiful walk-through of the flowery concepts in this Divine Forest. Let us move along in the fragrant mist of Ta Ha. With the Glorious Name of Allah, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness.

20:1 O Ideal Prophet! 20:2 We have not bestowed upon you this Qur'an to cause you any hardship. 20:3 But as a Reminder to the reverent, those who stand in awe of the Creator. 20:4 A Revelation from Him Who created the earth and the high skies. 20:5 The Beneficent, established on the throne of His Almightiness. (He maintains Supreme Control over all that He has created). 20:6 Unto Him belongs what is in the heavens, what is in the earth, and all between them, and all that is beneath the soil. 20:7 And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret thoughts, as well as that is yet more hidden within man. 20:8 Allah! There is no god but He. His are the most beautiful Names. (His alone are the attributes of perfection). 20:9 Has there come to you the history of Moses? 20:10 When he saw a fire (in the desert), he said to his family, "Wait! Behold, I see a fire far away. Perhaps I can bring to you a burning torch from there or find some guidance at the fire (to get directions)." 20:11 (This is the story of the days when Moses had reached the converging point of the stream of the conceptual knowledge of intellect, and the stream of the extrinsic knowledge of the Divine Revelation (18:65)). When Moses reached the fire, a voice called out, "O Moses! 20:12 Verily, I am your Lord! Take off your sandals, verily, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa." (Your quest for the Truth is over. So lighten the burdens of your search. Now you are in the Sacred Valley of Revelation). 20:13 I have chosen you to be My Prophet. Listen, then, to what is being revealed. 20:14 Verily, I, I alone am Allah, there is no god but Me. Therefore, serve Me alone, and from this very moment strive to establish the Divine Order in the land to practically remember Me. 20:15 Behold, the revolution is surely coming. But I Will to keep it hidden for the time-being. (You will be the pioneer of a great revolution, the signs of which are not yet visible). The purpose of this revolution will be for every person to get the fair compensation of his hard work (and bring an end to the hegemony of Pharaoh and his people). 20:16 Let not those people join your mission who consider it an impossible dream. They accept only what resonates with their desires. Such people will do more harm than good to your Mission." 20:17 "What is your strength O Moses?" (Moses was then given complete Guidance and strong Logic, and was encouraged to ask any questions). 20:18 He said, "Your Guidance is my strength. It will help me in all walks of life. I will prove to be a competent shepherd for the Israelites, and will use it as the challenges come forth." 20:19 Allah said, "You are now ready to embark upon your mission." 20:20 He felt that the Message given to him was vibrant with life. 20:21 He said, "Grasp it and fear not. We will keep it evergreen." Moses was told to hold fast to what he was taught to the extent that it became his first nature; even in frightening situations. And that he would come out unscathed from trying circumstances. 20:22 The Light in your heart will shine forth in the power of your presentation of the Truth. Another clear evidence! 20:23 We will show you some of Our great Signs (witness how the strength of the Truth can bring about great Revolutions (17:1), (79:20)). 20:24 Go to Pharaoh who is transgressing the limits." 20:25 Moses said, "My Lord! Expand my chest with confidence, courage and steadfastness. (94:1).20:26 Give me the strength that the formidable challenge becomes easy for me. (94:5). 20:27 Make me eloquent of speech. 20:28 That my word reaches the depths of their hearts. 20:29 And appoint a deputy for me from my folk. 20:30 My brother Aaron. 20:31 Strengthen me with him. 20:32 Make him my partner in my Mission. 20:33 That both of us strive hard together. 20:34 And we raise every step remembering Your Commands. 20:35 It is a great feeling that You watch us every moment." 20:36 God said, "O Moses! All your requests are granted. (10:89). 20:37 We have blessed you before and prepared you for this day, (since you were born). 20:38 When We inspired your mother with this inspiration. 20:39 Saying, "Place him (the baby Moses) in a box, and cast the box into the river. The river will cast it on to the bank, and it will be picked up by the one who considers Me and him (Moses) as his enemy. O Moses! I prepared you for this day with love, and reared you before My Sight. 20:40 Your sister walked (to the Royal Palace) and said to the royals, 'I can tell you of a nursing mother who can take good care of the baby.' We thus returned you to your mother, that she may be consoled and stop worrying. When you grew up, you accidentally killed a man who was beating up another man (28:15). We resolved this matter for you when you were going through trying periods. Then you dwelt among the Midyanites (with Prophet Shoaib) for several years. (Then you walked between the two streams, one of intellect and one of Revelation, to the point where they joined (18:65)). And now you are here as ordained, O Moses. 20:41 This is how I have made you for My service. 20:42 Now go, you and your brother, with My Messages and stay vigilant about My Remembrance. 20:43 Go, both of you, to Pharaoh. He has indeed transgressed all bounds. 20:44 Speak to him nicely, so that he may take heed and fear the consequences of his actions." 20:45 They said, "Our Lord! Verily, We fear that he might act hastily regarding us in abrupt tyranny." 20:46 Answered He, "Fear not. Behold, I am with both of you, I Hear and I See." 20:47 So go you both to him and say, "We are two Messengers of your Lord. Let the Children of Israel go with us, and stop persecuting them forthwith. We have come to you with a Message from your Lord. And Peace be upon him who follows Right Guidance. 20:48 Verily, it has been revealed to us that doom will be for him who is bent upon denial and turns away." 20:49 Pharaoh said, "Who then is the Lord of you two, O Moses?" 20:50 He replied, "Our Lord is He who creates and shapes everything, assigns its role and guides it aright." 20:51 (Pharaoh in front of his courtiers thought up a tricky question). He said, "What then is the state of the previous generations?" (The forefathers of the dignitaries sitting around, who never believed in your Lord.) 20:52 (Pharaoh expected Moses to say that they would be in Hellfire, and that would infuriate the courtiers.) Moses responded, "The knowledge of that is with my Lord in a Record. My Lord neither errs nor forgets. 20:53 He it is Who has made the earth a cradle for you, and has traced out ways thereon enabling you to go about therein by roads and channels. And He sends down from the sky water." And, by this means We bring forth different classes and pairs of plants. 20:54 Saying, "Eat and raise your cattle. Verily, herein are signs for men and women of thought. 20:55 From the earth We created you, into it We return you and from it We will bring you forth a second time." 20:56 And (through Moses) We made Pharaoh aware of all Our Messages. (The Message plainly refuted Pharaoh's long-standing claim that he was the high lord of people since he owned the land, the rivers and the resources of Egypt (43:46-54), (79:17-26)). But he stubbornly rejected the Message. 20:57 He said, "Have you come here to destabilize our country and drive us out of our land with your false religion and magical arguments, O Moses? 20:58 In that case, We will certainly produce before you the like thereof! (Will answer your arguments and arrange a debate between you, and our priests). Set up an appointment between us and you. Neither we, nor you shall break this appointment. It will be at a location convenient to us both and where both parties will have even chances." (7:104-126), (10:76-82), (26:34-51). 20:59 Answered Moses, "Your appointed time is the forthcoming Day of the Festival. And let the people be assembled after sunrise." 20:60 Pharaoh turned and collected his strength. (In the next few days he summoned his master debaters, the priests from various towns). And then he came at the appointed time. 20:61 Moses warned Pharaoh's debaters, "Woe unto you! Invent not a lie against God, lest He afflict you with suffering, for whoever invents such a lie is already undone!" 20:62 On hearing this, they debated among themselves about what they must do but they kept their talk secret. 20:63 The chiefs, seeing their hesitation, said to the debaters, "Behold, these two are wizards of logic, capable of carrying the masses with them, destroying your time-honored traditions, and thus estranging you in your own country or causing a great rebellion that drives you out of the land." 20:64 The chiefs took matters very seriously and commanded the debaters, "So arrange your plan, and face Moses and Aaron as a united front. Indeed, he is the victor today who gains the upper hand." 20:65 The debaters asked, "O Moses! Do you begin or shall we go first?" 20:66 He said, "Nay, you go first." Their smart presentation appeared to him to put life into otherwise feeble arguments with their logic wandering in different directions. (They were throwing the ropes of falsehood against the Rope of Allah). 20:67 Moses feared in his heart that their expertise of playing with words might influence the audience. (7:116). 20:68 We said, "Fear not! Verily, it is you who will prevail. 20:69 Present your case with confidence and the sheer power of Truth will swallow all their handiwork. Their fabrication is no more than a scheme of deception. And the liars succeed not against the Truth, however skillfully they design their strategy." 20:70 Then down fell the debaters prostrating themselves, and exclaimed "We have come to believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses!" 20:71 Pharaoh said, "Have you come to believe in him before I give you permission? Verily, he must be your master who has conspired with you. I will cut off your hands and feet on alternate sides and then I will crucify all of you on the palm trunks. Then you will know for certain which of us can give the more severe and the more lasting punishment, (the Lord of Moses or me)." 20:72 They answered, "Never shall we choose you above the clear evidence of the Truth that has come to us, nor prefer you over Him Who brought us into being! So issue whatever decree you will. Your judgment can only touch us in this worldly life. 20:73 As for us, behold, we have come to believe in our Lord hoping that He may forgive us our faults. And that He may forgive us for the lies that you had forced us to speak. For, Allah is Best and Most Abiding." 20:74 Verily, as for him who shall appear before his Sustainer while he had been violating human rights, for him shall be Hell. He will neither die there nor live. (14:17), (87:13). 20:75 Whereas he who appears before Him as a believer who had been doing good to others, such people will have lofty ranks. 20:76 And Gardens of Eden (Perpetual Bliss) beneath which rivers flow, therein to abide. That shall be the recompense of all those who have developed their personality. (They have actualized their "Self" by helping humanity with their wealth and person). 20:77 Finally, a time came when We commanded Moses, "Take away My servants by night and find for them a dry path through the Sea of Reeds. Fear not of being overtaken (by Pharaoh), and dread not the sea." (7:130), (26:63), (44:24). 20:78 Pharaoh pursued them with his forces, but the high tide completely overwhelmed them, and covered them up. 20:79 This is because Pharaoh had led his nation astray and had not guided them aright. (Therein is an example that the top leadership could make or break a nation). 20:80 O Children of Israel! We saved you from your enemy, and then made a Covenant with you by the right-hand slope of Mount Sinai, and gave you ample provision, meats and wholesome vegetation. (2:57), right slope (19:52).20:81 Saying, "Partake and enjoy the decent provisions which We have bestowed upon you. But do not disregard equity and none shall be deprived of the natural resources. Transgress not in this respect lest My disapproval should descend on you. And those nations on whom descends My disapproval do perish indeed!" 20:82 And verily, I am the Protecting Forgiver. There is plenty of room in My Laws to forgo wrongs of the past, so repent by coming back to the right path. Those who believe in My Laws, keep the collective good of the society in mind, and maintain that Order, will find themselves on the way to Success. 20:83 (Once, Moses was a step ahead in excitement.) Said his Lord, "What has made you hasten from your people, O Moses?" 20:84 Moses answered, "They are doing fine following my footsteps. I have rushed to You my Lord, so that You may be well-pleased with me." 20:85 Said He, "Our Law has tried your people after you left them, and As-Samiri has misguided them." 20:86 Moses went back to his people angry and sad, "O My people! Has not your Lord promised you many a goodly promise? Did, then, the fulfillment of this promise seem to you too long in coming? Or did you wish that your Lord's requital come upon you, and so you broke your promise to me?" 20:87 They said, "We intended to break no promises. But this is what happened. We were loaded with the sinful burdens of the (Egyptian people's) ornament, and so we threw them into the fire, as suggested by this As-Samiri." 20:88 Then As-Samiri (experienced in sculpting) made the effigy of a calf. It even brought forth a lowing sound with wind or when blown into. So they said, "This is your god, and the god of Moses, but he has forgotten." [As-Samiri originally hailed from northern India. Babu Rajindra's treatise "Casting of a caste" shows Samiri belonging to the 'Untouchables'. Fed up with apartheid he tried to lay down the foundation of a new mixed caste that could socialize with all four castes of Hinduism. As a consequence he was exiled by the powerful Brahmins and ended up in Egypt and later followed Moses in the Exodus. Cow worship was running in his blood stream. Side by side, the golden calf of the Israelites symbolized centuries old Egyptian influence. The Egyptians used to worship the sacred bull APIS who was considered to be a god-incarnate. The soul of the sacred bull upon death was supposed to transmigrate into another idol called OSIRIS whom they worshiped as God's son. (Recall UZAYR mentioned in the Qur'an (9:30). Some Jews in Arabia, still under the influence of ancient Egyptian traditions during the times of the exalted Messenger, used to believe in UZAYR or OSIRIS the bull-god as God's son.] 20:89 They knew full well that, like all false deities, the golden calf could not respond to queries, and had no control over their harm or benefit. 20:90 And Aaron indeed had told them beforehand, "O My people! You are being tempted to evil by this idol. Behold, your only Lord is the Beneficent! Follow me then, and obey my order!" 20:91 They said, "We will by no means cease worshiping it until Moses comes back to us." 20:92 When he returned, Moses asked, "O' Aaron! What stopped you when you saw them going astray? 20:93 That you followed me not? Didn't you disobey my order?" 20:94 Aaron said, "O Son of my mother! Don't get mad at me, nor treat me harshly. I feared that you would say, "You have let the Children of Israel divide into parties and sects." (Moses accepted this explanation since sectarianism is no less a crime than idol worship in any form. Seizing the beard and head pertains to harsh interrogation (7:150)). 20:95 Moses now turned to Samiri, "What do you have to say O Samiri?" 20:96 He answered, "I have gained insight into something which they have not. So I took hold of a handful of the Messenger's teachings and cast it away. This is what my mind prompted me to do." 20:97 Moses said, "Go away then, for good! In this life it is for you to say, "Touch me not!" And moreover you have a promise that will not fail. (People will consider and treat you as untouchable as before, and the suffering of the Hereafter is inescapable). Now, look at your god to whom you were so devoted. Verily, We will burn it and scatter its ashes far and wide over the sea." (Moses wanted his people to behold the powerlessness of the false deities and their potential to divide humanity). 20:98 Moses continued addressing his people, "Your God is only Allah; there is no god but He. He embraces all things in His Knowledge." 20:99 (O Prophet) We thus tell you some news of what happened in the past. And We have given you a Reminder from Our Presence. 20:100 Whoever turns away from it, he will, verily, bear a heavy load on the Day of Resurrection. 20:101 Abiding under it, an evil burden for them on the Day of Resurrection. 20:102 The Day when the Trumpet will be blown. On that Day We will assemble the guilty with their eyes dimmed in fear of retribution. (20:124). 20:103 Whispering among themselves, "You have lived but ten days." 20:104 We know best all they will say. The most perceptive of them shall say, "You have lived but a day." (75:20-21), (76:28). 20:105 They ask you (O Messenger), "What shall become of the mountains, the tycoons of power and wealth?" Say, "My Lord will blow them away like dust. (18:47), (56:5), (77:10), (78:20), (81:3). 20:106 And leave the earth plain and level." (Falsehood, deception and treachery shall vanish from the land). 20:107 Wherein you see neither curve nor ruggedness. (A life of truthfulness). 20:108 On that Day all people will follow the caller who has no crookedness in him. (Ta Ha, the Ideal Prophet's call. The Call that is straight, without crookedness (2:186), (7:86), (18:1), (33:46)). And they will follow the call without deviation. The most vociferous of leaders will subdue their voices before the Message of the Beneficent. You will only hear soft voices, gentle footsteps. 20:109 On that Day, intercession will be of no avail except if one stands up as a witness and is accepted according to the Law of the Beneficent. (None will have the benefit of intercession unless he has entered into a bond with the Beneficent during the life of the world (19:87)). 20:110 This information is given by Him Who knows their past and their future, while none encompasses His Knowledge. 20:111 All faces will be humbled before the Ever-Living, the Self-Subsistent Maintainer of the Universe. And undone will be the violators of human rights. 20:112 Whereas anyone who has done his best to help people, and is a believer in the Divine Values, need have no fear of being wronged or deprived of merit. 20:113 And thus have We sent this down, an Arabic Qur'an, and explained therein warnings in many ways, so that people walk aright or that it makes them rise to a new level of awareness. 20:114 Know, then, that Sublimely Exalted is Allah, the Ultimate Sovereign, the Ultimate Truth. (O Prophet) Hasten not in the learning and implementation of the Message of the Qur'an before a particular revelation to you is completed. These Messages given to you shall be established in stages, but always say, "My Lord! Increase me in knowledge." (75:16). 20:115 (Without Divine guidance of Revelation man is easily fallible.) And indeed, long ago We made a covenant with Adam (the mankind) that he would hold fast to Our Commands, but he forgot, and We found no constancy in him. (Adam = Mankind (2:30-38), (7:11-25)). 20:116 Recall when We said to the angels, "Bow before Adam, they bowed except Iblis; he refused." (Divine Laws in the Universe have been made of service to man but his selfish desire rebels against himself). 20:117 And thereupon We said, "O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and your wife so let him not drive the two of you out of this Garden so that you are landed into difficulty. You shall then have to toil hard for getting your sustenance." 20:118 "Behold, you are living the life of Paradise (on this very earth) where you are guaranteed never to go hungry and never to walk improperly clothed." 20:119 "Neither do you go thirsty, nor are you exposed to the burning sun." (Well provided with food, clothing, shelter, the basic needs). 20:120 But Satan whispered to him (The selfish desire was teaching him a sinister lesson), "O Adam! Shall I lead you to the tree of eternal life and ownership that is ever-lasting?" 20:121 Man and woman both ate the fruit of the Tree. People started dividing among themselves and their basic necessities of life ceased to remain guaranteed. They had to toil and contend with one another to earn their livelihood. This exposed the flaws in their character. They tried to hide their selfish behavior with superficial courtesy. Adam and his mate had disobeyed their Lord and gone astray. [What was the Forbidden Tree? Not of 'knowledge', nor of just 'life' as per the Bible. It is the Tree that branches off people into parties, sects, color and race, and yours and mine. The early human beings started marking up lands and hoarding. They also saw their children as a means of attaining immortality. So, this very earth which was a paradise for them to begin with, became a place where they had to continuously toil and often exploit one another to earn a living ---- a paradise lost! (2:34-39), (2:213), (7:11), (7:19-26), (15:28-29), (17:61), (18:50), (38:72-73)]. 20:122 Thereafter his Lord elected him and accepted his repentance and guided him. 20:123 He said, "Go down hence, O humans, males and females, foes to one another competing for sustenance! Nonetheless, there shall most certainly come to you guidance from Me. And whoever follows My Guidance will not go astray, nor will face hardship." (Nations who adopt Divine Principles, their economy will be abundant). 20:124 But whoever will turn away from My remembrance, thus ignoring My Commands, his will be a narrow life. (Such individuals and nations will live in economic and moral poverty). And I shall bring such of them blind to the Assembly on the Day of Resurrection. (17:72), (20:102). 20:125 He will wonder, "My Lord, why did you gather me blind when I used to see?" (22:46). 20:126 God will reply, "Thus it is. Our Messages came to you but you were oblivious to them. (Being blind of reason, you disregarded them). And thus, this Day you will be left in oblivion." 20:127 Thus do We reward him who wastes his own "Self" and believes not in the Messages of his Sustainer. Indeed, the suffering for them in the life to come shall be severe and enduring! 20:128 Is it not a guidance for them to know how many a generation Our Law destroyed before them, amid whose dwelling-places they now walk? In this, behold, are Signs for men and women of thought. 20:129 Now if it were not for a decree that has already been issued by your Lord, setting a term, (the Law of Respite), the Ultimate Requital would have come upon them at once. 20:130 Hence, (O Prophet) be patient about what they say. Strive in the Way of your Sustainer beginning before dawn to before sunset and even hours of the night, practically all day, that the Divine System becomes a living witness of His Praise. So that you attain true happiness (with success in your noble mission). 20:131 And turn not your eyes towards the splendor of the worldly life We have caused many to enjoy. (15:88). Thereby We put them to test. (A chance for them to walk aright or turn away (104:6-7)). The provision of you Lord is better and more lasting. (13:17). 20:132 Enjoin upon your family and followers that their central duty remains the establishment of the Divine System. We do not ask you to provide for Us, We provide for you. (The Divine System will take care of everyone's needs). And the future belongs to those who walk aright. 20:133 And they say, "Why does he not bring us a miracle from his Lord?" But has there not come to them a clear evidence of all the truth that was in the former Scriptures? (All Divine Scriptures have been miracles in their own right). (5:48). 20:134 Had Our Law annihilated them with some punishment before this, they would have said, "Our Lord! If only you had sent a Messenger, so that we might have followed Your Messages before we were thus humbled and disgraced!" (5:19). 20:135 Say, "Everyone is hopefully waiting (what the future may bring); wait then, for you will come to know who are on the even path, and who are rightly guided." (6:136).

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Surah 12 Yusuf - Joseph


[Author's Note] This is the 12th Surah of the Qur'an. It has 111 verses. In this Surah, the story of Prophet Joseph (Yusuf) is narrated. As usual, the Qur'an validates certain Biblical accounts while correcting the errors that were intermingled with the passage of time. And the Sublime purpose of the Book, even in historical accounts, consistently remains enlightenment for the reader. Prophet Jacob titled Israel, was the son of Isaac and the grandson of Abraham. Jacob (Yaqoob) had twelve sons from four wives. Joseph the second youngest and Benjamin (Binyamin), the youngest had the same mother (Rachel). Joseph was born about 1700 BC in Hebron, Palestine, and according to the Bible died at the age of 110. There are two mandatory qualities for being a good leader: Sincerity and Competence. With the Glorious Name of Allah, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness.

12:1 A.L.R. Allah, Aleem the Knower, Raheem the Merciful. These are the Messages of a Revelation clear in itself and clearly showing the Truth. 12:2 Behold, We have sent it down in all clarity, in the Arabic tongue, so that you might encompass it with your reason. 12:3 We reveal this Qur'an to you (O Prophet), and explain it in the best possible way, seeing that before this you were indeed unaware of what Revelation is. 12:4 Thus spoke Joseph to his father, "O My father! I saw in a dream eleven stars, and the sun, and the moon, I saw them prone themselves unto me!" 12:5 Jacob replied, "O My dear son! Do not relate your dream to your brothers. They might, out of envy, devise a scheme against you. Verily, selfish ego is man's open enemy." 12:6 "Your Lord will elect you and give you outstanding insight into the reality of things. He will perfect His Grace upon you, and upon the House of Jacob, as He perfected it upon your forefathers, Abraham and Isaac. Verily, your Lord is Knower, Wise." 12:7 Indeed, in the story of Joseph and his brothers there are messages for all with a seeking mind. 12:8 Now Joseph's brothers spoke thus to one another, "Joseph and his brother, Benjamin, are dearer to our father even though we are so many. Indeed our father is in plain aberration." 12:9 One of them proposed, "Let us slay Joseph or leave him in a distant land. Then your father's favor will be all for you, and your affairs will be adjusted right for you." 12:10 Another of them suggested, "Do not slay Joseph. Rather, if you must do something, cast him into a deep well, and some caravan may pick him up." 12:11 They said, "O Our father! Why don't you trust us with Joseph when we are good friends to him?" 12:12 "Send him with us tomorrow that he may enjoy himself and play. We will take good care of him." 12:13 Jacob said, "I worry that you take him with you to the wild and some wolf devours him when you are distracted." 12:14 They said, "If a wolf devours him in the strong presence (of the ten) of us, will our lives be worth living?" 12:15 Unanimous in their decision, they led Joseph to cast him into a deep well. When they were placing Joseph in the well, We revealed to him that he would remain secure, and one day he would tell his brothers about what they did. We also revealed to him that it would be a mystery to them as to how Joseph was saved! 12:16 After carrying out their plan they came to their father at night weeping. 12:17 Saying, "O Our father! We went racing among us, and left Joseph by our belongings. A wolf did eat him up. We fear that you will not believe us even if we are telling the truth." 12:18 And they came with false blood on his shirt. He said, "I don't believe this story; you have made it up. I will remain steadfast in the face of your conspiracy, and Allah it is Whose help is sought in the kind of misfortune you describe to me." 12:19 And, there came a caravan, and they sent their water drawer. He let down his rope and pail into the well. He called in excitement, "Oh, what a lucky find! It is a teenage boy!" People of the caravan took him along as treasure. And Allah was Aware of what they did. 12:20 They sold him in the market for a low price, a few silver coins. His value they knew not. 12:21 The one who bought him in Egypt said to his wife, "Receive him honorably. Take good care of him. May be he can help us or we can adopt him as a son." We, thus, established Joseph in Egypt and arranged for him proper education and training. He was gifted with a great insight into events. Allah's Command always prevails although most people won't understand the stages of cause and effect. 12:22 When Joseph reached his prime, We gave him wisdom and knowledge, since he lived upright. This is Our Law that We bestow knowledge and wisdom on those who live a balanced life in youth. 12:23 The lady of the house, tried to seduce him. She closed the doors and said, "I am all yours." He said, "May Allah preserve me! My Sustainer has placed me in a station of balanced character. Those who displace moral values with temptation do not prosper." 12:24 She desired him, and he would have desired her if he had not seen the Argument of his Lord, ("Go not close to adultery" (17:32)). Obeying Our Command saved him from evil and lewdness. He was among Our sincere servants. 12:25 And they raced to the door and in the process, she tore his shirt from behind. They found her husband at the door. She said, "What should be the punishment for one who wanted to molest your wife, prison or some chastisement of pain?" 12:26 Joseph said, "She is the one who tried to seduce me." Now a member of her family came and suggested, "If his shirt is torn from the front, then she is telling the truth, and he is the liar. 12:27 And if his shirt is torn from the back then she lied, and he is telling the truth." 12:28 When her husband saw the shirt torn from the back, he said, "This is the typical scheme of you women. Your scheming is formidable." (His discriminatory comment shows his anger, and that women in that society were not viewed well). 12:29 He said, "O Joseph! Forget about what happened. And you O woman! Ask forgiveness. For, you have been greatly at fault." 12:30 Women in the city started gossiping, "The governor's wife is trying to seduce her servant. She is deeply in love with him. But we see that she adopted the wrong tactics." 12:31 When she heard their gossip, she invited them, and prepared comfortable couches for them, and they schemed. She gave a knife to each of the women. Then, she called Joseph, "Come out unto them!" And when they saw him they flattered him and 'cut their hands'. They exclaimed in their flattery, "Good Lord! This is no mortal man! This is but an angel!" (The governor's wife and her friends had planned to incriminate Joseph, and they were just buying time. They made marks on their hands to feign self-defense. There is absolutely no mention of the supposed "beauty' of Joseph, a fabrication adopted by most commentators from the Bible! Secondly, the root word QAT'A in this verse is of very special significance. Did these women chop off their hands? Must the thieves get their hands chopped off? Please see (5:38-39)). 12:32 The lady of the house said, "This is he about whom you blamed me. I tried to seduce him but he preserved himself. Since he thinks he is an angel, and remains adamant against my command, he shall be imprisoned and brought low. (And, now we have the evidence against him with marks on your hands. We will humiliate him). 12:33 Joseph said, "O My Lord! Prison is dearer to me than these women's schemes. If you did not help me fend off their design, I am afraid of their intimidation, and of behaving like the unguided." 12:34 His Lord heard his prayer, and helped Joseph remain steadfast in fending off their schemes. Verily, He is the Hearer, the Knower of all intentions and actions. 12:35 (The women brought a suit against him.) The judges after seeing the marks on their hands put him in prison for a time. 12:36 Two young men went to prison with him (for unrelated crimes). One of them (a butler) told his dream, "I saw myself making wine." The other (a baker) said, "I saw myself carrying bread on my head from which birds were eating. Can you tell us what this means? We see that you are a doer of good." 12:37 He said, "I will tell you the meaning before today's meal is served. But, remember, that it is my Lord Who teaches me through Revelation. I am not one of those who reject Allah's Laws and disbelieve in the accountability of the life to come." 12:38 "I follow the creed of such ancestors as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It is not conceivable that we ever ascribe partners to Allah. This belief in the Oneness of God is of the Bounty of Allah upon us and upon all mankind. (It frees them from bondage to superstition and to 'men of religion'). But the majority of people fail to grasp this point, and thus remain thankless." 12:39 "O My prison mates! Are several masters better, or Allah, the One, the Dominant?" 12:40 "Those whom you worship and obey besides Him, are but names that you have named, you and your forefathers. Allah has revealed no authority for them. All ruling belongs to Allah alone. And there is no Judge but He. He has commanded that you serve none but Him. That is the Right Religion. But most people are not aware of this fact or disregard it in practice." 12:41 "O My prison mates! The first of you will be (restored as) the chief wine butler for the King. The other one (the chief baker of the King) will be crucified and birds will eat off his head. Thus is the case decided about what you ask." 12:42 Joseph asked the one whom he thought would be released, "Mention me in the presence of your King." But, his selfish ways made him ignore to mention it to the King, so Joseph stayed in prison for a few years. 12:43 And one day the King of Egypt said to his court, "I have dreamed seven fat cows being eaten up by seven lean cows and seven green spikes of wheat and (seven) dry. O My chiefs! Explain to me my vision, if you can interpret dreams." 12:44 They answered, "Confused nightmares! We are not skilled in interpreting such dreams." 12:45 The one who was released (the chief butler) at long last remembered. He said, "I can bring you the meaning, so send me forth." 12:46 He said, "Joseph! O you truthful one! Explain for us the seven fat cows being eaten by seven lean ones, and the seven green spikes of wheat and others dry. I wish to go back with information that they may know" (the interpretation and your value). 12:47 Joseph (without blaming him for his forgetfulness) told him the meaning and the way to avert the oncoming famine, "Work hard on agriculture for seven seasons. When you harvest the crop, only reap the amount you need. Leave the rest of the grains in the spikes." 12:48 "Then after that will come seven dry seasons which will use up all that you have prepared for them, but a little that you have stored up." 12:49 "After that, one year will come with good rains and the crops will be plenty. You will get abundant grain and fruit, and a lot of oil and juice to squeeze." 12:50 And the King said, "Bring him before me!" When the courier came to Joseph, he said, "Return to your King and ask him to find out the case of the women who marked their hands. Verily, my Lord knows their plot." (Joseph asked for investigation before being released, to vindicate his character). 12:51 The King sent for those women, and asked them, "What happened when you tried to seduce Joseph?" They answered, "Good Lord! We found no evil in him." The wife of the governor (Zelicha) couldn't hold back, "Now the truth is out. I was the one at fault and he is surely truthful." 12:52 (When Joseph learned this) He said, "I hope that the governor will realize that I never betrayed him in his absence. And Allah never leads to success those who betray Him and betray the trust of people." 12:53 "I do not claim that I am angelic, with no ego or desire. The human "Self" is not invincible against temptation (unless we make it surrender to the Divine Commands). It is my Lord's Mercy that mankind are in control of their behavior. Verily, my Lord is Absolver of imperfections, Merciful." 12:54 The King said, "Bring him to me so that I may appoint him a close adviser to me." And when he had spoken with him, the King decreed, "From today on you have a high standing with us, invested with all trust." 12:55 Joseph replied, "Place in my charge the treasury of the State. I shall be a competent custodian." (Now that he could personally handle the oncoming drought). 12:56 Thus, We gave established power to Joseph in the land (of Egypt). He had full mastery over it, ruling as he saw fit. We bestow Our Grace according to Our Laws, and never waste the reward of the doers of good. 12:57 And the reward in the life to come is phenomenally better for all those who attain belief and walk aright. 12:58 (And after some years) Joseph's brothers came and presented themselves before him. Joseph recognized them, but they did not. (They came from Canaan to buy grain as places around Egypt started suffering the drought). 12:59 And when he had given them suitable provisions, he said, "Next time bring to me that brother of yours from your father's side. Now you have seen that I am just and hospitable." 12:60 "And if you don't bring him to me, you will get no share from me; you will not even come close." 12:61 They said, "We shall try to persuade his father to let him go; that we will surely do." 12:62 Joseph said to his servants, "Load their barter (the price of wheat) back in their saddlebags. So that they may find it when they come home, and hence be more eager to return." 12:63 When they went back to their father, they said, "O Our father! All grain is to be withheld from us unless you send with us our brother (Benjamin). So send him that we may obtain the measure, surely, we shall guard him well." 12:64 Jacob said, "Shall I trust you with him as I trusted you with his brother? Allah is better at Guarding and He is the most Merciful of the merciful." 12:65 When they opened their packs, they discovered that their barter had been returned to them. (The grand minister, the Prophet of God, had paid on their behalf). They said, "O Our father! What more can we ask? We shall bring food for our family and guard our brother. And we shall have the extra measure of a camel load. The first load we have brought is but scant." 12:66 Jacob said, "I will not send him with you till you give me a solemn pledge in the name of Allah, that you will bring him back to me unless you get surrounded (by circumstances beyond control). And when they gave him their solemn pledge, he said, "Allah is the Warden over all we say." 12:67 And he said, "O My sons! Do not enter the town all by one gate, but enter by different gates. Yet, I cannot avail you against the Divine Laws. (So, handle all situations accordingly). Rule and Law-giving belongs to Allah alone. In Him I trust, and everyone must place trust in Him since the Divine Laws never change." (17:77), (33:38), (35:43). (It is a common misconception that Jacob told his eleven sons to enter by different gates to obviate 'evil eye'. Historically the brothers had been accused of spying on a previous occasion. The Qur'an consistently rejects all superstition). 12:68 When they went, they entered the town as their father instructed. Jacob was quite right that even he (a Prophet of God) could not avail them against the Divine Laws. It was a duty that he did (giving the correct advice to his sons), although it could not prevent what was to happen (with Benjamin (12:75-81)). He was, by Our teaching, full of knowledge. And most people are devoid of that level of insight. 12:69 When they met with Joseph, he brought his brother closer to him and said, "I am your brother, do not grieve about what they have been doing to us." 12:70 As the camels were loading, one of the brothers hid the drinking-cup in Benjamin's saddlebag (12:77), (12:83), (12:89). Then a caller cried, "O Camel-riders! You are thieves!" (The Qur'an here corrects the statement in Genesis that it was Joseph who placed the cup in their pack). 12:71 They said, coming towards them, "What is it that you have lost?" 12:72 They said, "We have lost the King's cup, and whoever produces it shall have an extra camel-load, and I (the chief royal servant) guarantee that." 12:73 They explained, "By God! Well you know that we did not come here to create mischief in the land, and we are no thieves." 12:74 The callers asked, "What shall be the penalty for it if you prove liars?" 12:75 The brothers replied, "The penalty for it! He in whose bag the cup is found he shall be the penalty for it. (The thief belongs to you). Thus we requite the doers of such wrong (in our land)." 12:76 They were brought before Joseph for the search. He began with the bags of his half-brothers before the bag of his brother (Benjamin). And finally extracted the cup out of his brother's bag. We thus perfected the plan for Joseph. He could not have detained his brother under the King's law. But that was the Will of Allah. We raise people in ranks according to Our Laws. And above every person of knowledge there is One who knows all. 12:77 The brothers said, "If he stole, so did his brother in the past." Joseph stayed quiet, revealing nothing. He only said in his heart, "You are in worse case, and Allah is the Best Knower of what you allege." 12:78 They said to Joseph, "O Noble one! He has an aged father, so take one of us instead of him. We see that you are a doer of good." 12:79 Joseph (stressing the circumstantial evidence) answered, "God preserve us from detaining other than him with whom we have found our property. For, then we would indeed be unjust." 12:80 So, when they lost hope, they conferred in solitude. The eldest among them said, "Don't you know that your father took a solemn pledge from you in Allah's name, and how you failed in the case of Joseph before? I shall not go from this place until my father gives leave or Allah judges for me. He is the Best of deciders." 12:81 He told the rest of the nine brothers, "Return to your father and say, 'O Our father! Verily, your son has stolen. We know for sure, because we witnessed it. That was something beyond our knowledge and control. 12:82 Ask the township where we were, and the caravan we came with. We are indeed telling the truth.'" 12:83 Jacob said, "Nay, you have made up yet another story good enough only for you. But I resort to decent forbearance. May Allah bring them all to me. Verily, He, only He, is the Knower, the Wise." 12:84 Then Jacob turned away from them saying, "Alas, my grief for Joseph!" His eyes glistened with tears but he suppressed his grief." (Jacob worried more about Joseph since he had no news of him yet. Many exponents at this point have ventured into strange guesswork. They report that Prophet Jacob became blind with grief and cried incessantly for eighty years grieving for Joseph! The Bible relates that Jacob lived to be 147 years old. Even so, it is not befitting of a Prophet of God, or even an ordinary person, to turn blind with grief and weep incessantly for 80 years. The whiteness of his eyes in this verse clearly refers to his eyes glistening with tears momentarily. And then he controlled his grief). 12:85 His sons said, "By God! You will never cease remembering Joseph until your health is ruined or you perish." 12:86. He said, "I present my distress and anguish only to Allah and I know from Allah what you know not." 12:87 "O My sons! Go and find Joseph and his brother and never despair of the soothing Mercy of Allah. None but the disbelievers (in His Attributes) despair of the soothing Mercy of Allah." 12:88 When they came before Joseph, they said, "O Noble one! We have suffered a lot of hardship along with our family. We bring only inferior barter to pay. So give us the full measure, and be charitable to us. Allah rewards the charitable." 12:89 As he granted the request, Joseph said, "Do you remember what you did to Joseph and his brother in your ignorance?" 12:90 They exclaimed, "Wow! Is it indeed you who are Joseph?" He answered, "I am Joseph and this is my brother. Allah has been Gracious to us. Verily, if one walks aright and is steadfast, Allah never loses the reward of such doers of good." 12:91 They said, "By God! Certainly Allah has raised you above us, and we were indeed at fault." 12:92 Joseph said, "There is no blame on you this day! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of the merciful." 12:93 Now, go and take this royal shirt of mine and show it to my father. He will see the reality of things. Then, bring all your family to me. 12:94 As soon as the caravan departed from Egypt, their father (Jacob) began telling his neighbors in Canaan about the Revelation that his son Joseph was in a position of high authority. "I do indeed scent the presence of Joseph even though you may call me senile." 12:95 The skeptics said, "By God! You are still in your old confusion." 12:96 The caravan arrived in Canaan and the good news was given to Jacob. When Joseph's royal shirt was shown to Jacob, he was delighted and his eyes saw the reality. He said, "Didn't I tell you that I know from Allah what you know not ?" 12:97 They said, "O Our father! Ask forgiveness for us, for we trailed behind in your obedience, indeed we were at fault." 12:98 Jacob answered, "I shall ask forgiveness for you from my Sustainer. Verily, He is Forgiving, Merciful." 12:99 And when they came in before Joseph, he respectfully greeted his parents, "Welcome to Egypt! God willing you will be in safety and peace here." 12:100 He raised his parents upon the throne of honor. All those present bowed to him in respect (To let his parents see the honor Allah had given their son). Joseph said, "O My father! This is how my Lord has made my dream come true. He has been very kind to me, since He freed me from the prison, and He has brought you here from the village. Satan (selfishness of my brothers) had sown enmity between us brothers. Verily, my Lord is Sublime in helping the worthy. He is the Knower, the Wise." 12:101 Then, Joseph prayed, "O My Lord! You have indeed bestowed upon me some kingship, and have imparted to me the insight into events. Originator of the heavens and the earth! You are my Protecting Friend in the world and the Hereafter. Help me remain committed to your Commands till the last breath, and be counted among those who help augment the human potential." 12:102 (O Prophet Muhammad) These are the chapters of the Unseen (history) that We reveal to you. You were not there when the brothers of Joseph decided together and were making their schemes. 12:103 (Although you narrated the accurate account of Joseph as they demanded), most of these people will not believe even as you compassionately so desire. 12:104 Although you ask them no reward for it. It is but a Reminder for the Worlds. 12:105 How many a Sign is there in the heavens and the earth which they pass by with their faces turned away! 12:106 The majority of those who claim to believe in Allah, practically submit to false authorities; humans and idols in countless forms. That is indeed SHIRK and they are MUSHRIKOON. 12:107 Do they deem themselves secure from the overwhelming Requital of Allah, or the coming of the Hour suddenly while they are unaware? 12:108 Say (O Prophet), "This is my way. Resting my call upon insight accessible to reason. I am calling you all to Allah, I and they who follow me." (We do not invite through blind faith, vague dogmas or by stunning your intellect with miracles). Glory to Allah! And I am not one of those who ascribe divinity in any form besides Him." 12:109 And even before your time, We never sent (as Our Messengers) but men to whom We revealed Our Messages. We always chose them from among the people of their own communities. Have they then never journeyed about the earth and seen what happened in the end to those who lived before them? And, don't they know that those who walk aright, the life to come is better for them. Will they not then, use reason? 12:110 There have been times when even the Messengers had lost all hope of reformation and thought that they had been denied. Then came Our help. We saved everyone worthy of being saved. Without exception We punished those who thrived on the fruit of others' toil. 12:111 Indeed in the history of these men, there is a lesson for people of understanding. As for this Revelation, it could not possibly be a hadith (talk or tales), fabricated. It confirms the Divine Origin of the previous Scriptures, and gives a detailed explanation of everything. And it is a Beacon and Mercy for all those who accept it.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Surah 31 - Luqman - Locomon


[Author's note] This is the 31st Surah of the Qur'an. It has 34 verses. The reader is once again reminded that the Qur'an sticks with its style of unity in diversity, and the title does not restrict a whole Surah with itself. Again, it is to be noted that the timing and the place of the Revelation of a Sur'ah is absolutely of no significance since the Book of Allah transcends temporal and spatial bonds. Long, contradictory and futile argumentation between the commentators about the SHANE-NUZOOL (the circumstance of a particular Revelation) are sheer waste of time and energy, and more noxiously, this exercise tends to shackle the Glorious Book to certain events of no significance. This point is proven to THE QUR'AN AS IT EXPLAINS ITSELF readers by the fact that at no point anywhere in the Mighty Book will they miss what 'caused' a certain Surah or Verses to be revealed. Wisdom and knowledge transcend temporal, geographical and racial boundaries. Historically Luqman lived around 200 B.C. in an oasis in the Nubian desert of Northern Sudan. He was an emancipated slave of African descent. After diligently going through a great conglomeration of information, often conflicting, about Luqman I have reached some conclusions which are humbly presented here: (In fact, this was my answer over the Internet to a bright gentleman, Gerald Etienne who would like to take this research further ahead). -------------------------------------------------- About Luqman Posted By: Gerald Etienne Date: Friday, 24 January 2003, at 9:48 p.m. Dr. Shabbir, Peace be unto you, You said in your introductory note to surah 31 that Luqman was an emancipated black slave from Nubia (Sudan). Would you share a little bit more of your historical knowledge with us. I would like to do some research on this subject, maybe you can cite some biographical/historical sources for me or some other interested reader. Keep up the good work. Salam Gerald E. -------------------------------------------------- Respected Gerald Etienne, Salams be upon you too! I feel honored to receive communication and appreciation from you. "Rahib Luqman Mua'ammar Nubi the Hakeem, Suqrat Thani - (Sage Locomon, the Aged, the Nubean, the Wise, Socrates the second" was his full name along with titles. When I was a Colonel in the Middle East, I had occasion to meet with Libya's Col. Mu'ammar Al-Qaddhafi in 1980. He told me of his descent from Luqman, hence the name Mu'ammar. Your research will be made a lot easier if you knew that Luqman is famous as AESOP, his Greek name. Greece where he had been taken as a slave from NE Sudan in one of their Viking like raids through the Red Sea where Lugman worked as a carpenter building boats. The next challenge is to connect Aesop with Luqman. Here is the help: Fables De Loqman Le sage, Derenbourg. Encyclopedia of Islam, Luqman, B.Keller AESOP AND COMPANY: WITH SCENES FROM HIS LEGENDARY LIFE. Barbara Badre. THE BEST OF AESOP's FABLES, Margaret Clarke. AESOP'S FABLES, Anne Gatti The last three only implicitly allude to the African origin of Luqman. As a child Luqman used to herd sheep, then as a young adult he had become a noted craftsman in carpentry. And that was the main reason for his abduction by the Greek pirates. Given the name AESOP, he lived in Greece under captivity for fifteen years serving his masters while writing his fabulous and world famous AESOP'S TALES. An affluent businessman bought from him his collection in return for his emancipation. Luqman lived to be 110 years old and died in his village in Nubia. (AESOP, A MASTER OF MIND, by John Zepletal. TAFSIR DURRE MANTHUR. TAFSIR IBN KATHIR). Dear Sir, in the given references you will find the information about Luqman scattered like numerous pieces of the puzzle. You will have to make the whole picture yourself as I did to my satisfaction. In fact, that is true of all history especially when a figure as legendary as Luqman is under study. Best wishes, Yours sincerely, Dr.ShabbirHe was a very wise man, and copies of his notebook known as SAHEEFAH LUQMAN (The Scrolls of Luqman, produced in Greece) existed in the times of the exalted Messenger. Legend has it that a man read a few passages from that notebook to the exalted Messenger. He liked them and said, "Shall I now narrate to you a higher Wisdom?" Upon hearing a few verses of Surah Luqman that fan of Luqman instantly embraced Islam; and is now remembered as Hazrat Suwaid bin Saamit (r.a.) Historians have speculated whether Luqman was a Prophet of God. But his famous quote implies that he was an intellectually and morally gifted man. When asked how and wherefrom he attained his outstanding wisdom, he responded, "From the ignorant!" (Yes, we can learn from any person, even from a child. And we can learn from our mistakes as well as from the mistakes of others). With the Glorious Name of Allah, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness.

31:1 A.L.M. Allah Aleem the Knower, Hakeem the Wise, narrates that: 31:2 These are the Messages of the Book, full of Wisdom. 31:3 Providing Guidance and Mercy to those who wish to live a balanced life and do good to humanity. 31:4 Such people strive to establish the Divine System and set up the Just Economic Order of Zakat. For, it is they who have conviction in the Eternity of the human "Self" and, hence, in the life to come. 31:5 They are the ones who are on the Guided Path of their Lord and they are the ones who will be ultimately successful. 31:6 But among people, there are those who invest their time in HADITH which is unfounded, so as to lead those without knowledge away from the Path of Allah, making mockery of it (the Qur'an). For such there is shameful punishment in store. [In order to defend the 'Imams' of Hadith, some commentators try to explain away 'Lahwal Hadith' as music. This obviously makes no linguistic or contextual sense]. 31:7 Whenever Our Verses are conveyed to such a purchaser of Hadith, he turns away in arrogance as if he never heard them - as if there were deafness in his ears. So give him the tidings of a painful doom. 31:8 Whereas those who believe in the Word of Allah and fulfill the needs of others, for them are the Gardens of delight. 31:9 To abide therein according to Allah's true promise. For, He is the Mighty, the Wise. 31:10 He has created the skies without any pillars and supports that you can see, and has placed firm mountains upon the earth, lest it sway with you, and He has dispersed therein all kinds of creatures. And We send down water from the sky, and thus We cause plants of every goodly kind to grow therein. (Mountains resulted millions of years ago as the earth was cooling off and the earth crust was shrinking (16:15), (78:7)). 31:11 All this is Allah's creation. Now show Me what others instead of Him may have created. Nay, but those who relegate the Truth are obviously lost in error. 31:12 And indeed, We granted this Wisdom to Luqman, "Be practically grateful to Allah, for whoever is grateful is but grateful for the good of his own "Self". And whoever chooses to be ungrateful, must know that Allah is Self-Sufficient, Owner of all Praise." 31:13 And, behold, Luqman, enlightening his son, said this to him, "O My dear son! Never associate anyone with Allah, for, verily, SHIRK (believing in Law-givers besides Him) is a tremendous wrong." 31:14 "(And O My dear son! Allah says) - We have ordained upon man goodness to his parents. His mother bore him by bearing strain upon strain, and his utter dependence on her lasted no less than two years. (2:233), (46:15). Hence, be grateful to Me and to your parents, and remember that your ultimate destination is with Me." 31:15 "Yet, if they strive to make you ascribe partners to Me, that shall be obviously contrary to what you have learned - then obey them not. However, let your company be kind to both in this world. Follow the path of those who turn toward Me. In the end the return of you all is unto Me, and then I shall explain to you what you truly accomplished in life. 31:16 "O My little son! Verily, know that something even as tiny as a mustard seed, deep inside a rock, or in the Highs or in the Lows, Allah will bring it forth. For, behold, Allah is Sublime, Aware." 31:17 "O My dear son! Strive to establish the Divine System wherever you are, and advocate the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is contrary to the Permanent Values. And remain steadfast in the face of whatever may befall you by way of opposition and persecution. All this, behold, will require unwavering determination." 31:18 "And never be arrogant with people, and walk not haughtily on the earth. Behold, Allah does not love any bragging boaster. (17:37), (57:23). 31:19 "Hence, be modest in your pace and in your bearing, and lower your voice, for, behold the harshest voice is the braying of a donkey."31:20 (This was some of the wisdom Luqman was endowed with.) Do you not realize that Allah has made of service to you all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth? And He has lavished upon you His Blessings, tangible and intangible. And yet, among people are those who argue about Allah without exploring the realm of knowledge, without taking the right approach, or a Book giving Light. 31:21 And when such people are told to follow what Allah has revealed, they say, "Nay, we follow that which we have found our fathers doing." What! Even though Satan had invited them to the doom of Flames?" 31:22 Now whoever submits his whole being to Allah and is a doer of good to others, has indeed grasped the Strongest Bond (2:256). And Allah's Laws determine the outcome of all things and actions. (WAJH = Face = Whole being). 31:23 And let not the disbelief of the rejecters grieve you. To Us is their return, and then We shall explain to them all they truly accomplished. Verily, Allah is Knower of what is in the hearts. 31:24 We will let them enjoy themselves for a little while - but ultimately We shall drive them to a heavy doom. 31:25 And thus it is: If you ask them, "Who is it that has created the heavens and the earth?" They will answer, "Allah". Say, "All Praise is due to God - for, most of them do not know (that His Laws, too, are praiseworthy and worth implementing in your lives (29:61)). 31:26 Unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. (His Law is operative in the entire Universe). Verily, Allah! He is Independent, Owner of all Praise (and the Universe is a living witness to that). 31:27 And if all the trees on earth were pens, and the sea were ink, with seven more seas yet added, the Words of Allah would not be exhausted (18:109). Verily, Allah is Almighty, Wise. 31:28 Your creation and your raising again are only as that of a single life cell. Verily, Allah is the Hearer, the Knower. 31:29 Do you not see that it is Allah Who makes the night grow longer by shortening the day, and makes the day longer by shortening the night? And that He has subjected the sun and the moon to His Laws, each running along its course for an appointed term? (13:2). Isn't He Aware of all you do? 31:30 Thus it is - since Allah, He is the True, and what they call upon instead of Him is the False. He is the Exalted, the Great. 31:31 Have you not seen how the ships speed through the sea carrying Allah's blessed provisions - so that He might show you some of His Signs? Herein, behold, are Messages for every person who would patiently observe the Nature and be grateful for learning. 31:32 And so, when violent waves surround them like shadows of gloom, they call unto Allah, sincere in their faith in Him (and work according to Divine Laws). But as soon as We save them ashore, some of them compromise (with falsehood). Yet none could knowingly reject Our Messages unless he is a betrayer to his own "Self", ungrateful for such blessing. 31:33 O Mankind! Be mindful of your Lord, and stand in awe of the Day when no parent will be of avail to his child, nor a child will in the least avail his parent. Verily, Allah's Promise is True. Let not (the instant gratifications of) the life of this world deceive you. And let not yourselves be distracted from Allah by anyone who deceives you (contrary to what Allah has told you about Himself in this Revelation). 31:34 Verily, with Allah alone rests the knowledge of the Hour; He it is Who sends down rain; and He Alone knows what is in the wombs. No one knows what he will reap tomorrow, and no one knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah alone is Knower, Aware. (Hour = The Great Revolution + Resurrection ; Rain = Resurgence of humanity ; What is in the wombs = Of what character the offspring will turn out to be ; Reap tomorrow = What will happen to him tomorrow ; Land = Circumstance).

Revelation Order of the Quran


The Qur'an was sometimes revealed to respond to various events and incidents. Sometimes it was revealed to support the Prophet (saws) who was faced with many questions, whether by Muslims or non-Muslims, and hardships. Other times was revealed for legislation and for putting rules to govern the social, economical, and political life of Muslims.

The first verses to be revealed, according to the most correct opinion of scholars, are the first five verses of Surat Al-`Alaq, which happens to be Chapter 96 of the 114 chapters of the Qur'an.

Order of Verses

Muslim scholars agree that the order of the verses in every chapter was done or commanded by the Prophet (saws) himself following the commands of Almighty Allah.

The Prophet (saws) once told his Companions after he had received a certain revelation that the arch-angel Gabriel had specified for him the particular order of verses (Ahmad).

There are also many incidents narrated in the books of Sunnah regarding the Prophet's (saws) recitation during prayer. The Companions used to pray every day behind the Prophet (saws) and he used to recite the Qur'an in the order given to him by Allah, and they used to learn and memorize from his recitation.

There have never been any incident in which any of the Companions reciting in any order that violated the order of the verses showed to us by the Prophet (saws).

Order of Surahs

As for the order of the surahs (chapters), the most accepted view is that it was also applied following an instruction given by Almighty Allah. It has been recorded that the Prophet (saws) reviewed the Qur'an with the arch-angel Gabriel 24 times all within his life.

Every year, he used to review it once during the month of Ramadan with Gabriel. During the final year of the Prophet's life, Gabriel revised the Qur'an twice with the Prophet (saws) as a way of confirming it. The Prophet (saws), in turn, used to follow this order in teaching his Companions and communicating the message to them.

Significance of Order

The question of why a surah like Surat Al-`Alaq, which was revealed first not put first in the mushaf (a physical copy of the Qur'an), this will require us to search more in the Qur'an and explore some of its secrets. A deeper look into the whole matter will show us that the order of the Qur'an has a purpose and the revelation of the Qur'an also has a purpose.

For instance, the revelation of the Qur'an responding to specific problems or incidents carries the purpose of solving these problems or providing guidance in these incidents.

During the first 13 years of Islam, the main task of the Prophet (saws) was to call people to Islam based on the Qur'anic revelations that focused on the Oneness of Allah and righteous conduct.

When Muslims migrated to Madinah and an Islamic community started to be well-established and new challenges emerged, the main focus of the revelation was to regulate the life of Muslims through detailing the rulings pertaining to different acts of worship and setting punishments for crimes and so on.

This shows us that the revelation in each of the two stages has a purpose. When the revelation stage was completed, the whole Qur'an was there and the whole message was put in the order that was intended for it to stay till the Day of Judgment.

Explanation of Order

Such an order serves in delivering the message the Qur'an is put for, as it has got another purpose.

If you look at the first surah of the Qur'an, namely Al-Fatihah, you can perceive that it acts as a summary for the structure and the message of the Book (Qur'an) ahead of every reader.

Being Umm Al-Qur'an (the Mother of the Qur'an), it carries all its themes; it summarizes them. It tells us who Allah is: the source of all love and mercy. Therefore, knowing who He is, we should be thankful to Him and worship Him alone. We should seek His help, and He has all the power to give us whatever we need. It makes it clear that Allah is the only One Who can really guide. It speaks about life after death and the consequences of human action and behavior.

The same holds true for Surat Al-Baqarah. The first verses speak about the fact that this Book is above all doubts and it is beyond the abilities of doubters to try to challenge its validity. Then it gives a hint on its main theme — guiding the righteous — and then goes on to speak about the beginning of creation and the story of Adam to establish the theme that humankind is here on earth as a vicegerent of the Creator and should use the Book as a manual to carry out the mission in the right way.

All these themes and messages cannot be carried except through this logical order in which Allah commanded for the Qur'an to be put. If a surah like Al-`Alaq was to be put at the beginning instead of Al-Fatihah, it could have given a significance of course and give a message, but not the exact fully wonderful message that we can get from the order of the Qur'an as it is now.

Why Al-`Alaq in the Current Order?

As for why Surat Al-`Alaq is mentioned in this specific order in the Qur'an, scholars hold the view that in the previous surah of At-Tin, Allah says what means that He has created humans in the best make (At-Tin 95:4). The details of that creation are cited in Surat Al-`Alaq:

*{Read in the name of your Lord Who created. Created humans, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood.}* (Al-`Alaq 96:1-2)

Revelation Order of the Qur'an

Blogger Comment:

The people who are refuting the Quran in the time of Muhammad (PBUH) and to our time today never explained to us why Muslims were very keen to memorize the Quran. Why they prayed behind the prophet for long hours day and night for 23 years. Why they preserved it as it is with no letter changed. Why they are very keen to get all words pronunciation right. Why would all of these reciters with those beautiful musical sounds recite the Quran. Why Muslims hear it with the utmost reverence and admiration. Even at times when Muslims were more sinful and less obedience they kept the Qruan in high reverence even when they did not apply the Quran in their daily lives like the early Muslims used to do. Read the Quran well with honest translation and sincere heart. Be very sure it is not from God before you refute it since you will have no good support in the day of judgement and I will be your adversary since most of you know about me and my website. I have in my website the best articles about the Quran and many of the verses of the Quran.

Friday, September 24, 2010

Secrets of The Quran

من أسرار القرآن(‏362)إنه لقرآن كريم في كتاب مكنون لا يمسه إلا المطهرون تنزيل من رب العالمين[‏الواقعة‏77‏ ـ‏80]‏ بقلم: د. زغلول النجار
هذه الآيات القرآنية الكريمة جاءت في خواتيم سورة لواقعة‏,‏ وهي سورة مكية‏,‏ وآياتها ست وتسعون‏(96)‏ بعد البسملة‏,‏ وقد سميت بهذا الاسم لاستهلالها بذكر الساعة‏,‏
و‏(‏الواقعة‏)‏ من أسمائها لتحقق وقوع‏(‏ الساعة‏),‏ كما وعد ربنا ـ تبارك وتعالي ـ‏.‏ ويدور المحور الرئيسي لسورة‏(‏ الواقعة‏)‏ حول أحداث كل من‏(‏ الساعة‏),‏ و‏(‏القيامة‏),‏ و‏(‏الآخرة‏),‏ والرد علي منكري تلك الأحداث الثلاثة الكبري التي كثيرا ما تجمع تحت أحد هذه المسميات القرآنية بسبب سرعة تتابعها‏,‏ وإن كانت‏(‏ الساعة‏)‏ تمثل اللحظات الأخيرة في عمر هذا الوجود الدنيوي‏,‏ والتي يفني فيها كل مخلوق‏,‏ و‏(‏القيامة‏)‏ هي البعث من أرض جديدة غير أرضنا هذه‏,‏ وتحت سماوات غير السماوات المحيطة بنا‏.‏ و‏(‏الآخرة‏)‏ تأتي بعد كل من البعث والحشر والحساب والجزاء بالخلود إما في الجنة وإما في النار‏.‏هذا‏,‏ وقد سبق لنا استعراض سورة الواقعة‏,‏ وما جاء فيها من ركائز العقيدة‏,‏ والإشارات الكونية‏,‏ ونركز هنا علي ومضة الإعجاز التشريعي والاعتقادي في وصف القرآن الكريم بأنه تنزيل من رب العالمين من الأدلة المنطقية علي أن القرآن الكريم هو كلام الله‏:‏أولا‏:‏ أنه كتاب معجز في بيانه‏:‏ فكل حرف‏,‏ وكلمة‏,‏ وآية‏,‏ وسورة من سوره‏,‏ والقرآن كله معجز في بلاغته‏,‏ ونظمه‏,‏ وبيانه‏,‏ ودلالته‏,‏ لدرجة أنك لو نزعت كلمة واحدة من إحدي آياته وأدرت لسانك علي مجامع اللغة العربية لتجد بديلا لها ما وجدته‏.‏ هذا بالإضافة إلي ارتباط الآيات ببعضها‏,‏ وارتباط فواتح السور بخواتيمها‏,‏ وارتباط السور بعضها ببعض‏,‏ واختيار ألفاظ محددة في مواطن معينة دون مرادفاتها‏,‏ في دقة من التعبير‏,‏ وإحكام في الأداء‏,‏ وشمول وكمال لا تدانيهما أي صياغة بشرية مهما علت‏.‏ وقد تحدي القرآن الكريم العرب ـ وهم في قمة من قمم البلاغة والفصاحة وحسن البيان ـ أن يأتوا بقرآن مثله‏,‏ أو بعشر سور من مثله‏,‏ أو حتي بسورة واحدة من مثله‏,‏ ولو من قصار السور‏,‏ فعجزوا عن ذلك‏,‏ ولا يزال هذا التحدي قائما دون أن يتقدم عاقل ليقول إنه استطاع صياغة سورة من مثل سور القرآن الكريم‏,‏ أما المجانين فيمكنهم الادعاء بذلك وقد ادعوه‏!!‏ وأما بلغاء العرب فلم يحاولوا ذلك أبدا‏,‏ ولو من قبيل المحاولة‏,‏ لأنهم كانوا يعلمون جيدا عجزهم عن ذلك‏.‏ وهذا هو الوليد بن المغيرة أحد بلغاء العرب وفصحائهم‏,‏ قال في القرآن الكريم وما آمن به‏:‏ والله إن لقوله لحلاوة‏,‏ وإن عليه لطلاوة‏,‏ وإنه ليعلو وما يعلي عليه‏.‏ثانيا‏:‏ أنه كتاب معجز فيما يدعو إليه من معتقدات‏:‏ ومن ذلك دعوته إلي الإيمان بالله‏,‏ وملائكته‏,‏ وكتبه‏,‏ ورسله‏,‏ واليوم الآخر‏,‏ وبالقدر خيره وشره‏,‏ وبالغيب المحجوب عن الإنسان‏,‏ وإلي توحيد الله ـ تعالي ـ توحيدا كاملا‏,‏ وتنزيهه فوق جميع صفات خلقه‏,‏ وعن كل وصف لا يليق بجلاله‏,‏ والانطلاق من هذا التوحيد الخالص لله ـ تعالي ـ إلي الدعوة للاعتقاد في وحدة رسالة السماء‏,‏ وفي الأخوة بين الأنبياء وبين الناس جميعا الذين ينتهي نسبهم إلي أب واحد وأم واحدة هما آدم وحواء ـ عليهما السلام ـ‏,‏ وما أحوج الناس إلي هذه العقيدة الصحيحة وسط بحور الكفر والشرك والضلال التي يغرقون فيها اليوم إلي الآذان‏.‏ ويري كل عاقل أن التوحيد أفضل من الشرك‏,‏ وأن تنزيه الله ـ تعالي ـ فوق جميع صفات خلقه أفضل من الانحطاط بمدلول الألوهية إلي الحجر‏,‏ أو الشجر‏,‏ أو البشر‏,‏ أو الشيطان‏,‏ أو النيران‏,‏ أو غير ذلك‏,‏ وأن الإيمان بجميع أنبياء الله ورسله أفضل من التحلق حول واحد منهم والمبالغة في تعظيمه إلي حد عبادته من دون الله‏,‏ أو المبالغة في عبادة الذات إلي حد التأله علي خلق الله‏,‏ والتجبر في الأرض‏.‏ثالثا‏:‏ وهو كتاب معجز فيما يدعو إليه من عبادات‏:‏ لأن العبادات فيه هي أوامر إلهية خالصة‏,‏ وليست من صناعة البشر‏,‏ وهنا يتضح الفارق الكبير بين العبادات المفروضة من الخالق ـ سبحانه وتعالي ـ والعبادات الموضوعة بواسطة الإنسان‏,‏ ويمكن إدراك ذلك بمقارنة كل من النطق بالشهادتين‏,‏ وأداء كل من الصلاة‏,‏ والزكاة‏,‏ والصوم‏,‏ والحج عند المسلمين‏,‏ بالعبادات عند غيرهم من أصحاب المعتقدات الأخري‏.‏رابعا‏:‏ وهو كتاب معجز في دستوره الأخلاقي‏:‏ الذي يتصف بالكمال والمواءمة مع ما تقبله الطبيعة البشرية من ضوابط تنظيمية لسلوك كل من الفرد‏,‏ والأسرة‏,‏ والمجتمع‏,‏ دون أدني قدر من الغلو‏,‏ أو الإقلال‏,‏ أو التفريط‏.‏خامسا‏:‏ وهو كتاب معجز في جميع تشريعاته‏:‏ التي تتصف بالحكمة والرشد والعدل‏,‏ وذلك من مثل تحريم قتل النفس التي حرم الله إلا بالحق‏,‏ وتشريع عقوبة القصاص‏,‏ وتحريم كل من الزنا والشذوذ الجنسي‏,‏ وتحريم كل من السرقة والحرابة‏,‏ ووضع العقوبات الرادعة للواقعين في تلك الحدود‏,‏ وتشريع عقوبة القذف‏,‏ وتحريم الربا بكل أشكاله وصوره المؤدية إلي الكسب الحرام‏,‏ أو إلي أكل أموال الناس بالباطل‏,‏ وتحريم كل من الخمور والمخدرات‏,‏ وأكل أي من الميتة أو الدم أو لحم الخنزير أو ما أهل لغير الله به‏,‏ وتحديد العلاقات والواجبات والحقوق لكل فرد في الأسرة والمجتمع والدولة والعالم‏(‏ فقه الأسرة والمجتمع‏,‏ فقه المعاملات والسلوك‏,‏ فقه الحاكم والمحكوم‏,‏ وغير ذلك من التشريعات الإلهية‏)‏ التي تتفوق فوق كل القوانين الوضعية‏.‏سادسا‏:‏ وهو كتاب معجز في إشاراته العلمية إلي الكون ومكوناته وظواهره‏:‏ وقد جاء ذلك في أكثر من ألف ومائتي آية صريحة‏,‏ بالإضافة إلي آيات تقترب دلالتها من الصراحة‏,‏ في صياغة علمية تبلغ من الدقة والشمول والكمال ما لم يبلغه العلم الحديث‏,‏ علما بأن هذه الإشارات لم ترد في مقام الإخبار العلمي المباشر‏,‏ بل جاءت في مقام الاستدلال علي حقيقة الألوهية للخالق العظيم‏,‏ وحقيقة ربوبيته‏,‏ ووحدانيته المطلقة فوق جميع خلقه‏,‏ وفي مقام الاستشهاد علي قدرته المطلقة في الخلق والإفناء والبعث‏,‏ وعلي كل ما يشاء‏..‏ وتأتي الكشوف العلمية الحديثة متوافقة مع ما سبق نزوله في القرآن الكريم‏.‏سابعا‏:‏ وهو كتاب معجز في جميع أنبائه الغيبية‏,‏ وإشاراته التاريخية‏:‏ فقد أشار إلي عدد من الوقائع التي تمت فيما قبل التاريخ‏,‏ ولم يدونها إلا القرآن الكريم‏,‏ كما أخبر بأحداث عديدة قبل وقوعها وتحققت بالفعل‏,‏ أو لم تقع بعد‏,‏ ونحن لا نزال ننتظر وقوعها‏,‏ واستعرض جوانب من تاريخ عدد من الأنبياء والمرسلين‏,‏ وعدد من صالحي البشر وطالحيهم‏,‏ وعدد من الأمم البائدة بدقة فائقة‏,‏ وقد بدأت الاكتشافات الأثرية في الشهادة علي سبق القرآن الكريم بالإشارة إليها‏.‏ثامنا‏:‏ وهو كتاب معجز في ضوابطه التربوية‏:‏ التي تهتم ببناء الإنسان الصالح‏,‏ وليس فقط المواطن الناجح الذي تركز عليه أغلب المناهج التربوية الوضعية‏,‏ التي ثبت فشلها‏.‏تاسعا‏:‏ أنه كتاب معجز في خطابه إلي النفس الإنسانية‏:‏ وهو خطاب يرقي بالإنسان إلي مراتب عليا في معراج الله‏,‏ لا يمكن أن يرقي به إليها خطاب سواه‏,‏ لأنه يحدد للإنسان علاقته بربه‏,‏ وبذاته‏,‏ وبأهله‏,‏ وبمجتمعه‏,‏ وبالإنسانية جمعاء تحديدا دقيقا‏,‏ يرتقي بالإنسان إلي مقامات التكريم التي رفعه إليها خالقه‏,‏ ويحقق له الأمن النفسي‏,‏ ويطهره من القلق‏,‏ والشعور بالخوف‏,‏ وسوء الظن‏,‏ والحسد‏,‏ والغيرة‏,‏ والتشاؤم‏,‏ والتوتر‏,‏ والشعور بالتعاسة والشقاء‏,‏ وغير ذلك من الأمراض النفسية التي تنتاب الإنسان في غيبة الإيمان بالله‏,‏ والبعد عن فهم حقيقة رسالة الإنسان في هذه الحياة‏:‏ أنه عبد لله‏,‏ مطالب بعبادة ربه بما أمر‏,‏ ومستخلف في الأرض مطالب بعمارتها وإقامة شرع الله وعدله في ربوعها‏,‏ ويرعاه في كل ذلك ويطمئن قلبه الشعور بمعية الله‏,‏ لأن الإنسان إذا فقد الإيمان بذلك شقي في هذه الحياة وأشقي‏,‏ وتعرض للعديد من الأمراض والعقد النفسية التي قد لا يكون لبعضها شفاء‏.‏عاشرا‏:‏ أنه كتاب معجز في ضوابطه الاقتصادية والإدارية‏:‏ التي اعترف بسموها كثير من أساتذة هذين المجالين من غير المسلمين‏,‏ خاصة تحت وطأة الأزمة الاقتصادية الطاحنة التي تسود عالم اليوم‏,‏ والتي تكاد تأكل الأخضر واليابس من علي وجه الأرض‏.‏ومن ضوابط القرآن الاقتصادية ما جاء به من تحريم الربا بمختلف أشكاله ووسائله‏,‏ ومن تشريع الزكاة‏,‏ واشتراط كتابة الدين‏,‏ والإشهاد عليه‏,‏ والأمر بأداء الأمانات إلي أهلها‏,‏ وغير ذلك من ضوابط التعاملات المالية‏.‏ ومن ضوابطه الإدارية الأمر بحسن التخطيط‏,‏ والاستعانة بأهل الرأي والخبرة‏,‏ والأمر بحسن توزيع الاختصاصات والمسئوليات‏,‏ وبالعدل بين المرءوسين‏,‏ واحترام الكبير‏,‏ والعطف علي الصغير‏,‏ وبالمحافظة علي الحقوق والواجبات‏,‏ والمساواة بين الناس‏,‏ وتحريم أن يحكم المسئول أهواءه الشخصية في الحكم علي مرءوسيه‏,‏ والأمر بالمحافظة علي المصالح العامة والخاصة‏,‏ وحسن القيام عليها بأمانة واقتدار‏.‏حادي عشر‏:‏ أنه كتاب معجز في شموله‏:‏ وذلك لمعالجته العديد من القضايا التي تتراوح بين خلق السماوات والأرض إلي خلق كل من الحياة والإنسان‏,‏ كما تشمل سير عدد من الأنبياء والصالحين من لدن أبينا آدم ـ عليه السلام ـ إلي بعثة الرسول الخاتم ـ صلي الله وسلم وبارك عليه وعلي أنبياء الله ورسله أجمعين ـ‏,‏ وتشمل سير عدد من الأمم البائدة‏,‏ والأفراد الصالحين والطالحين‏,‏ بالإضافة إلي ركائز كل من العقيدة والعبادة والأخلاق والمعاملات‏,‏ كل ذلك دون خطأ واحد في اللغة أو الصياغة أو الدلالة أو المحتوي‏.‏ثاني عشر‏:‏ أنه كتاب معجز في جرس ألفاظه وخواتيم آياته‏:‏ وذلك من مثل روعة الجرس الصوتي بين كلماته‏,‏ وخواتيم آياته‏,‏ مع سلامة الأسلوب‏,‏ وسهولة التراكيب‏,‏ والانسياب في النطق مما ييسر الحفظ‏,‏ وموافقة الألفاظ للمعاني المقصودة منها بدقة فائقة‏,‏ مما ساعد ملايين الأفراد من العرب والعجم علي حفظه كاملا‏.‏ثالث عشر‏:‏ إعجاز رسم حروفه‏:‏ التي تتميز بالجمال والتناسق‏,‏ والطواعية للتشكيل‏,‏ والضوابط الحاكمة للخط العثماني الذي كتب به المصحف الشريف من مثل قواعد الوصل والفصل‏,‏ والبدل‏,‏ والهمزة‏,‏ والحذف والإضافة في رسم الحروف‏,‏ وذلك من أجل استيعاب جميع اللهجات العربية‏,‏ وهو أمر معجز حقا لتفرد المصحف الشريف به دون سائر الكتب‏.‏رابع عشر‏:‏ هو كتاب معجز في دقة حفظه‏:‏ فلا تعرف البشرية وحيا سماويا حفظ في نفس لغة وحيه علي مدي أربعة عشر قرنا أو يزيد دون أن يضاف إليه حرف واحد‏,‏ أو أن ينتقص منه حرف واحد سوي القرآن الكريم الذي تفرد بهذا الإعجاز الحفظي بعهد مطلق من الله ـ سبحانه وتعالي ـ حتي يبقي القرآن الكريم حجته البالغة علي جميع خلقه إلي يوم الدين‏.‏خامس عشر‏:‏ هو الكتاب الوحيد الذي تحدي به رب العالمين الإنس والجن‏,‏ فرادي ومجتمعين أن يأتوا بشيء من مثله‏:‏ دون أن يتمكنوا من مجابهة هذا التحدي رغم مرور أكثر من أربعة عشر قرنا علي نزوله‏.‏من هنا كانت ومضة الإعجاز الإنبائي والتشريعي والاعتقادي في وصف القرآن الكريم بقول ربنا ـ تبارك وتعالي ـ فيه‏:‏إنه لقرآن كريم في كتاب مكنون لا يمسه إلا المطهرون تنزيل من رب العالمين‏(‏ الواقعة‏:77‏ ـ‏80).‏وهذا الوصف الإلهي للقرآن الكريم بأنه‏(‏ في كتاب مكنون‏)‏ أي في كتاب مستور‏,‏ مصون‏,‏ محفوظ بحفظ الله ـ تعالي ـ عن التبديل والتغيير‏,‏ وهو اللوح المحفوظ‏,‏ أو هو كذلك المصحف الذي بأيدينا‏,‏ وقد تعهد ربنا بحفظه‏.‏ ويدعم أنه اللوح المحفوظ قول ربنا ـ تبارك وتعالي ـ في الآية التالية‏:‏لا يمسه إلا المطهرون والمطهرون هم الملائكة الأطهار‏,‏ وقد يشمل ذلك المتطهرين من البشر‏,‏ وذلك لأن القرآن الكريم هو كلام رب العالمين‏,‏ في صفائه الرباني‏,‏ وإشراقاته النورانية‏.‏ ومن هنا وجب تعظيمه واحترامه وإجلاله‏,‏ ومن صور ذلك ألا يمسه إلا طاهر‏.‏ وجمهور فقهاء المسلمين مجمعون علي عدم جواز مس المصحف الشريف إلا لطاهر من الحدثين الأصغر والأكبر‏,‏ وقد أجاز البعض رخصة في ذلك لضرورة التعليم والتعلم‏.‏ والذين يتشددون في هذا الأمر يقولون‏:‏ إذا كان الله ـ تعالي ـ يؤكد لنا أن الصحف المطهرة في السماء لا يمسها إلا المطهرون‏(‏ وهم الملائكة‏),‏ فإن صحائف القرآن الكريم التي بأيدي المسلمين لا ينبغي أن يمسها إلا طاهر‏.‏ولعل في ذلك ردا علي أحد ‏ وعندما سئل‏:‏ هل قرأت القرآن؟ أجاب بالنفي‏,‏ وأكد أنه لا يعرف شيئا عن محتواه‏,‏ ولكنها الرغبة الجامحة في الشهرة الزائفة‏,‏ والكراهية الشديدة للحق وأهله‏,‏ ووجه كريه من أوجه الحضارة المادية المفلسة في زمن الفتن الذي نعيشه‏,‏ ولكن الحق دائما يعلو ولا يعلي عليه‏...‏ والله غالب علي أمره ولكن أكثر الناس لا يعلمون‏(‏ يوسف‏:21),‏ وصدق الله العظيم‏,‏ وبلغ رسوله الكريم ـ صلي الله عليه وسلم ‏ اللهم آمين آمين‏..‏ وآخر دعوانا أن الحمد لله رب العالمين‏.‏
المزيد من مقالات د. زغلول النجار

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an


By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

The Holy Qur’an refers to the heart as a processor of information, particularly concerning emotions. This reference to the heart as such attracts attention to the relationship between the mind and the heart.
This article starts by listing down the verses that deal with the heart and explaining them, in order to sort out the mind-heart connection. Then, few academic articles about the subject will be reviewed in order to explore this relationship further, from a scientific perspective.
Verses mentioning the heart in the Holy Qur’an
Upon checking the Holy Qur’an index in Arabic,[1] this author found that there were about 132 verses in which the heart was mentioned in singular and plural forms. Here are some of them. The Arabic text of the verses is from
وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ ۖ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْر
آل عمران ، 3: 159
‌If you were severe or harsh-hearted (in treating them), they would have left you. So, pardon them, and ask (Allah) to forgive them, and consult them in the affairs (of the community). (Al-E-Imran, 3: 159).
إِلَّا مَنۡ أَتَى ٱللَّهَ بِقَلۡبٍ۬ سَلِيمٍ۬ (الشعراء ، 26: 89).
Except he, who came to Allah with a sound heart ( Al-Shu’ara, 26: 89)
مَّنۡ خَشِىَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَجَآءَ بِقَلۡبٍ۬ مُّنِيبٍ (قاف ، 50: 33).
Who feared the unseen Al-Rahman (The Merciful), and came with a repentant heart (Qaf, 50: 33)
وَيُشۡهِدُ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِى قَلۡبِهِۦ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ ٱلۡخِصَامِ (البقرة ، 2: 204).
... and he calls Allah to witness about what is in his heart; yet he is the most contentious of enemies (Al-Baqara, 2: 204)
وَلَا تَكۡتُمُواْ ٱلشَّهَـٰدَةَ‌ۚ وَمَن يَڪۡتُمۡهَا فَإِنَّهُ ۥۤ ءَاثِمٌ۬ قَلۡبُهُ (البقرة ، 2: 283).
Do not conceal the testimony. And whoever conceals it his heart is sinning. (Al-Baqara, 2: 283)
وَقَلۡبُهُ ۥ مُطۡمَٮِٕنُّۢ بِٱلۡإِيمَـٰنِ (النحل ، 16: 106).
... and his heart assured by faith (Al-Nahl, 16: 106).
فَيَطۡمَعَ ٱلَّذِى فِى قَلۡبِهِۦ مَرَضٌ۬ (الأحزاب ، 33: 32).
... lest the one in whose heart there is sickness should aspire (to you). (Al-Ahzab, 33: 32)
وَمَن يُؤۡمِنۢ بِٱللَّهِ يَہۡدِ قَلۡبَهُ (ِالتغابن ، 64: 11).
... and whoever believes in Allah, (Allah) guides his heart (Al-Taghabun, 64: 11)
قَالَ أَوَلَمۡ تُؤۡمِن‌ۖ قَالَ بَلَىٰ وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَطۡمَٮِٕنَّ قَلۡبِى (البقرة ، 2: 260).
He (Allah) said: Haven’t you believed yet? He (Ibrahim) said: “Yes,” but for my heart to be assured (Al-Baqara, 2: 260)
مَّا جَعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ۬ مِّن قَلۡبَيۡنِ فِى جَوۡفِهِۦ‌ۚ (الأحزاب ، 33: 4).
Allah has not made for any man two hearts in his chest (Al-Ahzab, 33: 4)
سَنُلۡقِى فِى قُلُوبِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ ٱلرُّعۡبَ (آل عمران ، 3: 151).
We shall cast great fear into the hearts of the nonbelievers (Al-E-Imran, 3: 151)
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَتَطۡمَٮِٕنُّ قُلُوبُهُم بِذِكۡرِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ أَلَا بِذِڪۡرِ ٱللَّهِ تَطۡمَٮِٕنُّ ٱلۡقُلُوبُ (الرعد ، 13: 28).
Those who believe, and whose hearts find assurance (and peace) in the remembrance of Allah. For, in the remembrance of Allah, hearts find assurance (and peace) (Al-Ra’ad, 13: 28)
وَمَن يُعَظِّمۡ شَعَـٰٓٮِٕرَ ٱللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِن تَقۡوَى ٱلۡقُلُوبِ (الحج ، 22: 32).
and whoever glorifies the rituals of Allah, it is (a sign) of piety of hearts (Al-Hajj, 22: 32)
أَفَلَمۡ يَسِيرُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمۡ قُلُوبٌ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ بِہَآ أَوۡ ءَاذَانٌ۬ يَسۡمَعُونَ بِہَا‌ۖ فَإِنَّہَا لَا تَعۡمَى ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرُ وَلَـٰكِن تَعۡمَى ٱلۡقُلُوبُ ٱلَّتِى فِى ٱلصُّدُورِ
(الحج ، 22: 32).
Have they not traveled throughout the Earth, with their hearts to reason with, and ears to hear with? Truly it is not the eyes that become blind, but do the hearts which are in the chests (Al-Hajj, 22: 46)

Meanings associated with the heart, according to the above verses
The above verses provide us with a number of meanings associated with the heart. These include severity and harshness in dealing with people, soundness, repentance, rivalry, sinfulness, faith, sickness and trouble, guidance, assurance and peace, love, fear, thankfulness for positive surroundings, and reasoning.
Basically, the heart reacts notably to issues related to goodness and wickedness.
Exploring the relationship between the heart and the mind
The relationship between the heart and the mind has been explored in many articles or works, as readers can find on the internet. Here is some information from few of them, by no means this is a survey or a review of the literature. The idea here is conveying to readers that the relationship between the heart and the mind has been studied and researched away from any references to the Holy Qur'an.
“While not all negative thoughts and feelings are bad for health, specific emotional states (mental), especially stress and depression, have now been linked to heart troubles of all kinds. Evidence is overwhelming that the heart takes a beating after psychic trauma, but lesser insults may do us in as well. A bad marriage, an angry or abusive boss, a mugging in the park—all increase risk of heart disease, a bounty of evidence shows. Personality factors like extroversion and optimism can positively impact the cardiovascular system and the health of the heart, while anger and stress can damage the heart and the mind. Some forms of heart disease even trigger the same chemistry found in depression and stress.” [2]
“At HeartMath we’ve spent the last 15 years diligently studying the “heart” physically, emotionally and spiritually. Our researchers have been mapping the communication pathways between the heart, the brain and the rest of body while also studying the effects of positive emotions on health and performance. What we’ve learned is that the heart is the master controller in the human system capable of sending powerful, healing commands throughout the entire body. These signals from the heart have a dynamic impact on the nervous, hormonal and immune systems. They also influence brain function and have the ability to improve cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, psychological problems and more. In essence our old friend the heart may be the best healer of all.” [3]
“The key to harnessing the heart’s amazing power lies in our ability to consciously generate positive emotional states like appreciation, care and love. With stress increasing—personally, interpersonally and socially—many people have lost this ability only experiencing these regenerative emotions occasionally.” [4]
The relationship of our emotions and psyche (mind) to heart disease is intriguing. There is evidence linking cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders and the possible mechanisms and pathophysiology of this association. There is also a possible role of using mood enhancing therapies (mainly antidepressants) and their safety in patients with cardiovascular disorders. [5]
“There is a plausible biological basis for the association between psychiatric morbidity (mind) and cardiovascular (heart) disease. Anxiety, panic disorder, and depression are common in patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension.” [6]

There is a very close and an interactive relationship between the mind and the heart, particularly regarding the issues of emotions as well as issues related to good and evil.
People with optimistic and good life style enjoy peace of the mind and calmness of the heart. However, pessimism and wrong doing may be associated with mental and cardiac disorders.
Thus, basic good characteristics of love, appreciation, care, tolerance, sharing, understanding, helping others, and observing God’s teachings not only are rewarded in the hereafter but they also bring peace of the mind and soundness of the heart during your life on Earth, making it better and more enjoyable.
The healing signals from the heart, which have a dynamic impact on the nervous, hormonal and immune systems, give evidence that the heart not only reasons but makes decisions and acts for the welfare and wellbeing of the body.
The heart can thus be described as a part of the brain, but located in the chest.
Notes and References---------------------------------------------------------
[1] Pages 549-551 of the Holy Qur’an Index in Arabic by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr. 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title of the index is: “Al-Mu’ajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Qur’an Al-Kareem.”
[2] The High Price of a Broken Heart Yes, you can die from heartbreak. In fact, even mild forms of the blues can put you at risk By
[3] Understanding the Relationship Between Heart, Mind & Body By Howard Martin:
[4] Understanding the Relationship Between Heart, Mind & Body By Howard Martin:
[5] Heart and mind: (1) relationship between cardiovascular and psychiatric conditions By S U Shah, A White, S White, W A Littler:
[6] Heart and mind: (2) psychotropic and cardiovascular therapeutics By S U Shah, Z Iqbal, A White, S White:
* Dr. Hassan Ali El-Najjar has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Master’s degree in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Georgia, USA. He is also a native speaker of Arabic.