Friday, February 09, 2007

The Islamic and Christian View of Jesus: A comparison


The person of Jesus or Isa in Arabic (peace be upon him) is of great significance in both Islam and Christianity. However, there are differences in terms of beliefs about the life and the occurrences of this noble Messenger.
Source of information about Jesus in Islam.
Muslims take their information about Jesus from two main sources: the Quran, the direct word of God, as revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), as well as the Hadith, or the sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad.Most of the information about Jesus is actually found in the Quran. It is interesting to note that contemporary scholars and scientists, Muslims and non-Muslims, have discovered that the Quran talks about scientific phenomena which could not have been known by humans when the Quran was revealed in seventh century Arabia. Accurate information about embryology is one such example.As a result, a number of non-Muslim scholars have concluded that the Quran can only be the Book of God.The Quran was memorized, written down and revised in the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Today, anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim believes in the complete authenticity of the Quran.
Source of information about Jesus in Christianity
Christians take their information about Jesus from Bible, which for them includes the Old and New Testaments.This includes four biblical narratives covering the life and death of Jesus. These have been written, according to tradition, respectively by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. They are placed at the beginning of the New Testament and comprise close to half of it.Encyclopedia Britannica notes that "none of the sources of his life and work can be traced to Jesus himself; he did not leave a single known written word. Also, there are no contemporary accounts written of his life and death. What can be established about the historical Jesus depends almost without exception on Christian traditions, especially on the material used in the composition of the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, which reflect the outlook of the later church and its faith in Jesus."Wayne A. Meeks, Woolsey Professor of Biblical Studies at Yale University, interviewed for the 1998 PBS documentary "From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians" adds: "there is only an interpreted Jesus, there are many interpreted Jesuses. So where do we begin? We begin not with Jesus, we have no access to him. We begin with the responses to Jesus, by his followers, by outsiders who heard about him.... We begin with those reactions as they're enshrined in the text we have."Below are the views of Islam and Christianity based on primary source texts and core beliefs.
1. Do Muslims believe he was a Messenger of One God? YESBelief in all of the Prophets and Messengers of the God, Allah as He is known in Arabic, is a fundamental article of faith in Islam. Thus, believing in Prophets Adam, Jesus, Moses, and Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon them) is a requirement for anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim. A person claiming to be a Muslim who, for instance, denies the Messengership of Jesus, is not considered a Muslim. The same is true of any other Prophet.The Quran says in reference to the status of Jesus as a Messenger:"The Messiah (Jesus), son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger before whom many Messengers have passed away; and his mother adhered wholly to truthfulness, and they both ate food (as other mortals do). See how We make Our signs clear to them; and see where they are turning away!" (5:75).Also in the Quran, God says:"People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, and attribute to God nothing except the Truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was only a Messenger of God, and His command that He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in God and in His Messengers, and do not say: (God is a) trinity. Give up this assertion; it would be better for you. God is indeed just One God. Far be it from His Glory that He should have a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. Allah is sufficient for a guardian." (4:171-172)2. Do Muslims believe he was born of a Virgin Mother? YESLike Christians, Muslims believe Mary, Maria in Spanish, or Maryam as she is called in Arabic, was a chaste, virgin woman, who miraculously gave birth to Jesus."Relate in the Book the story of Mary, when she withdrew from her family, to a place in the East. She screened herself from them; then We sent to her Our spirit (angel Gabriel) and he appeared before her as a man in all respects. She said: I seek refuge from you in Allah Most Gracious (come not near) if you do fear Allah. He said: Nay, I am only a Messenger from your Lord, to announce to you the gift of a pure son. She said: How shall I have a son, when no man has ever touched me, and I am not unchaste? He said: So it will be, your Lord says: ‘That is easy for Me; and We wish to appoint him as a sign unto men and a Mercy from Us’: It was a matter so decreed" (Quran 19:16-21).3. Do Muslims believe Jesus had a miraculous birth? YESThe Quran says:"She (Mary) said: ‘O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me.’ He (God) said: ‘So (it will be) for Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: ‘Be!’- and it is" (3:47).It should also be noted about his birth that:"Verily, the likeness of Jesus in Allah’s Sight is the likeness of Adam. He (Allah) created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!’-and he was" (Quran 3:59).4. Do Muslims believe Jesus spoke in the cradle? YES"Then she (Mary) pointed to him. They said: ‘How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?’ He (Jesus) said: ‘Verily! I am a slave of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet; " (19:29-30).5. Do Muslims believe he performed miracles? YESMuslims, like Christians believe the Prophet Jesus performed miracles. But these were performed by the will and permission of Allah, Who has all power and control over all things."Then will God say: ‘O Jesus the son of Mary! recount My favor to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel) so that you did speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold: you make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and you breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by My leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers by My leave. And behold! you bring forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain the children of Israel from (violence to you) when you did show them the Clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: ‘This is nothing but evident magic’ (5:110).6. Do Muslims believe in the Trinity? NOMuslims believe in the Absolute Oneness of God, Who is a Supreme Being free of human limitations and wants. He has no partners in His Divinity. He is the Creator of everything and is completely separate from His creation.Allah says in the Quran regarding Trinity:"Surely, disbelievers are those who said: ‘Allah is the third of the three (in a Trinity).’ But there is no god but One God. And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall the disbelievers among them (Quran 5:73).Also:"People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, and attribute to God nothing except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was only a Messenger of Allah, and His command that He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and in His Messengers, and do not say: ‘Allah is a Trinity.’ Give up this assertion; it would be better for you. Allah is indeed just one God. Far be it from His glory that He should have a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. Allah is sufficient for a guardian" (Quran 4:171).7. Do Muslims believe that Jesus was the son of God? NOAs mentioned above, Muslims believe that God is One and free of all partners and associates. He is above all that others associate with Him. All power and control are with Him. It is above His Majesty and Glory to take a son, partner or associate. He is independent of everyone and everything, while on the other hand, everyone and everything is dependent on Him."Say: "God is Unique! God, the Source [of everything]. He has not fathered anyone nor was He fathered, and there is nothing comparable to Him!" (Quran 112:1-4).The Quran also states:"Such was Jesus, the son of Mary; it is a statement of truth, about which they vainly dispute. It is not befitting to the majesty of Allah, that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! When He determines a matter, He only says to it, ‘Be’ and it is" (Quran 19:34-35).8. Do Muslims believe Jesus was killed on the cross then resurrected? NO"And because of their saying, ‘We killed Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah’- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of Jesus was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. The have no knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely they killed him not (Jesus, son of Mary). But Allah raised him (Jesus) up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he is in the heavens). And Allah is ever All-Powerful, All-Wise" (Quran 4:157-158).
1.Do Christians believe Jesus was a human being and Messenger of God? YES & NOWith the exception of Unitarian Christians, most Christians now believe in the Divinity of Prophet Jesus, which is connected to the belief in Trinity (which is discussed in point number six).They say he is the second member of the Triune God, the Son of the first part of the Triune God, and at the same time "fully" God in every respect.Early followers of Jesus never believed that he was God.2. Do Christians believe he was born of a Virgin Mother? YESA chaste and pious human woman who gave birth to Jesus Christ, the second member of the Trinity, the Son of God, and at the same time "fully" God Almighty in every respect.Christians believe however, that while she was a virgin, she was married to a man named Joseph (Bible: Matthew:1:18). According to Matthew 1:25, Joseph "kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son; and he called His name Jesus".3. Do Christians believe he had a miraculous birth? YES"Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows. When His mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit" (Bible: Matthew 1: 18).4. Do Christians believe he spoke in the cradle? YES and NO?There is a second century Arabic apocryphal fable from Egypt called the Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus Christ which mentions this:"...Jesus spake when he was in the cradle, and said to his mother: "Mary, I am Jesus the Son of God, the Word, which thou didst bring forth according to the declaration of the angel Gabriel, and My Father hath sent me for the salvation of the world."5. Do Christians believe he performed miracles? YES"And now, Lord, look upon their threats, and grant to thy servants to speak thy word with all boldness, while thou stretches out thy hand to heal, and sign and wonders are performed through the name of thy holy servant Jesus (Bible: Acts 4:30).Christians believe that Jesus performed these miracles because he was the Son of God as well as the incarnation of God. However, this passage clearly indicates that it was actually God acting through His servant Jesus.6. Do Christians believe in the Trinity? YESWith the exception of the Unitarian Christians, who do not believe in the Divinity of Christ, the Trinity, according to the Catholic encyclopedia, is the term used for the central doctrine of the Christian religion. The belief is that in the unity of the Godhead there are Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. These three Persons or beings are distinct from each another, while being similar in character: uncreated and omnipotent.The First Vatican Council has explained the meaning to be attributed to the term mystery in theology. It lays down that a mystery is a truth which we are not merely incapable of discovering apart from Divine Revelation, but which, even when revealed, remains "hidden by the veil of faith and enveloped, so to speak, by a kind of darkness" (Const., "De fide. cath.", iv).\ The First Vatican Council further defined that the Christian Faith contains mysteries strictly so called (can. 4). All theologians admit that the doctrine of the Trinity is of the number of these.The Catholic Encyclopedia notes that of all revealed truths, this is the most impenetrable to reason.More specifically, the Trinity is mentioned in Matthew 28:19:"Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit".One passage in Mark 12:28, 29, and 30 contradicts the "three in one theory" though. It says:"And one of the scribes came and herd them arguing, and recognizing that He had answered them well, asked him, ‘What commandment is the foremost of all?’ Jesus answered, ‘The foremost is, ‘HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD; AND YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND, AND WITH ALL YOUR STRENGTH’"7. Do Christians believe that Jesus was the son of God? YES"For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him (Bible: John 3:16).However, it is interesting to note that the term "son of God" is used in other parts of the Bible to refer to Adam (Bible: Luke 3:38), Israel (Bible: Exodus 4:22) and David (Bible: Psalms 2:7) as well. The creation of God is usually referred to in the Bible as children of God.
The role of Paul of Tarsus in shaping this belief and the belief in Trinity
The notion of Jesus as son of God is something that was established under the influence of Paul of Tarsus (originally named Saul), who had been an enemy of Jesus, but later changed course and joined the disciples after the death of Jesus.Later, however, he initiated a number of changes into early Christian teachings, in contradiction, for instance, to true disciples like Barnabas, who believed in the Oneness of God and who had actually lived and met with Jesus.Paul is considered by a number of Christian scholars to be the father of Christianity due to his additions of the following ideas:- the idea that Jesus is the son of God,- the theory of Atonement,- the renunciation of the Law of the Torah which affected rulings about food and circumcision in early Christianity
His letters are the primary sources of information on Jesus according to the Christian tradition.Initially, Paul was a staunch opponent of Jesus. However, when he did join the followers of Jesus later on, he added many changes in the original teachings of Jesus in hopes of winning over the Gentiles (non-Jewish people), such as the three examples mentioned above.The original followers of Prophet Jesus opposed these blatant misrepresentations of the message of Jesus. They struggled to reject the notion of Divinity of Jesus for close to 200 years.One person who was an original follower of Prophet Jesus was Barnabas. He was a Jew born in Cyrus. He was a successful preacher of the teachings of Jesus. Because of his closeness to the Prophet, he was an important member of the small group of disciples in Jerusalem who had had gathered together following the disappearance of Jesus.The question of the Jesus’s nature, origin and relationship with God was not raised amongst Barnabas and the small group of disciples. The Prophet was considered a man miraculously endowed by God . Nothing in the words of Jesus or the events in his life led them to modify this view.The Gospel of Barnabas was accepted as a Canonical Gospel in the Churches of Alexandria till 325 C.E. Iranaeus (130-200) wrote in support of pure monotheism and opposed Paul for injecting into Christianity doctrines of the pagan Roman religion and Platonic philosophy. He had quoted extensively from the Gospel of Barnabas in support of his views. This shows that the Gospel of Barnabas was in circulation in the first and second centuries of Christianity.Since Paul’s alterations to the original monotheistic message of Jesus were very appealing to the Gentiles, the true believers were unable to stop the misguidance.In 325 Common Era (C.E.), a council of Christian leaders met at Nicaea and made Paul's beliefs officially part of Christian doctrine. It also ordered that all original Gospels in Hebrew script which contradicted Paul’s beliefs should be destroyed. An edict was issued that any one in possession of these Gospels will be put to death.
The Gospel of Barnabas has miraculously survived though.
8. Do Christians believe he was killed on the cross? YESThis is a core Christian belief and it relates to the theory of atonement. According to this belief, Prophet Jesus died to save mankind form sin. However, this is not stated explicitly in the four gospels which form the primary source texts of Christianity.It was Paul of Tarsus, considered the real father of Christianity, who came up with this idea (see explanation above). It is found in Bible: Romans 6:8,9.Christians believe Jesus was spat on, cut, humiliated, kicked, striped, and finally hung up on the cross to endure a slow and painful death.

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